The Validity of the Developmental Theories Essay


Introduction

Human nature and its varying and complex behaviours fascinate about everyone. Although non all are inclined to be able to understand and explain the inside informations of single personalities those who do happen themselves in confusion many times why some people do things that are at times hard to grok. However. the scientific discipline of human behaviour has so helped ease therefore far. an apprehension of human behavior and its nature at assorted lengths through the theories of human development by outstanding theoreticians ( Plotnik. 1996 ) . This paper attempts validate their plants by mentioning the researcher’s ain personal timeline and/or development. For a proper and organized intervention of this paper. it will reply the undermentioned job statements:

  • What are the descriptions of Freud ( psychosexual ) . Erikson ( psychosocial ) . and Piaget’s ( Cognitive ) stages for childhood and adolescent old ages of development?
  • Are developmental theories applicable to real-life and if so. based on your personal timeline. how ( and if non. how non ) ?

Discussion

What are the descriptions of Freud ( psychosexual ) . Erikson ( psychosocial ) . and Piaget’s ( Cognitive ) stages for childhood and adolescent old ages of development?

Development does non stop one time a individual reaches adulthood. but continues throughout life. Developmental psychologists seek to depict ad analyze the regularities of human development across the full life span. It focuses chiefly on these facets of development that make us similar to one another ( Atkinson et al. . 1993 ) .

Sigmund Freud hypothesized that each of us goes through five psychosexual phases. These are five different developmental periods – unwritten. anal. phallic. latency. and venereal phases – during which the person seeks pleasance from different countries of the organic structure associated with sexual feelings. Freud emphasized that the child’s foremost five old ages are the most of import to societal and personality development ( Atkinson et al. 1993 ) . The phases of unwritten. anal. phallic. latency and venereal phases are controversial and extremely problematic constructs which Freud originated.

Freud pointed out that fulfilling one of the child’s needs becomes a beginning of possible struggle between the kid. who wants immediate satisfaction. and the parent. who places limitations on when. where. and how the child’s demands should be satisfied. Freud believed that interactions between parent and kid in fulfilling these psychosexual demands – for illustration. during suckling or toilet developing – greatly influence the child’s societal development and future societal interactions. Freud’s psychosexual phases are portion of his larger psychoanalytic theory of personality ( Hilgard et Al. . 1983. Atkinson. 1993 ) .

Second. the psychosocial phase of development is best explained through the theory developed by Erik Erikson. Harmonizing to Erik Erikson. a kid will meet different sorts of jobs in babyhood and childhood. which will determine one’s societal and personality development. Erikson gave eight psychosocial phases. A kid harmonizing to Erikson will meet a peculiar psychosocial job at each phase.

If he successfully resolves the job. he will develop a good societal trait that will assist him/her work out the following job. If he/she is unsuccessful. he/she will develop a bad societal trait that will impede his or her work outing a new job at the following phase ( Atkinson. 1993 ) . His phases includeTrust versus misgiving. Autonomy versus Shame & A ; uncertainty. Initiative versus guilt. Industry versus Inferiority. Identity versus Confusion. Intimacy versus Isolation. Generativity versus Stagnation. Integrity versus Despair. consist each of the description of the periods and the possible jobs that may originate during each of the peculiar period ( Halonen & A ; Santrock. 1996 ) .

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development refers to how a individual perceives. thinks. and additions an apprehension of his or her universe through the interaction and influence of familial and learning factors.

He has identified the cognitive phases and refers to four different phases – sensorimotor. preoperational. concrete operational. and formal operational phases – each of which is more advanced than the preceding phase because it involves new logical thinking and thought abilities ( Piaget. 1963 ; Hurlock. 1964 ) . Piaget’s work led to the current position that kids are actively involved in their ain cognitive development. By active engagement. Piaget meant that kids are invariably endeavoring to understand what they encounter. and in such brushs. they form their ain conjectures or hypotheses about how the universe works ( Hurlock. 1964 ) .

Are developmental theories applicable to real-life and if so. based on your personal timeline. how ( and if non. how non ) ?

This paper merely briefly introduced three differing accounts of certain facets of human development and these were the presently accepted theoretical positions of human-behavior development. Associating these with the author’s personal development. yes. I could state that the developmental theories are in most instances applicable. Looking at my personal timeline. the observations and generalisations made by Freud. where the battles in ulterior old ages such as acquiring married at an earlier age. fall ining the ground forces etc. . were concerned. many of his constructs had pointedly identified those that are linked with during the early old ages of my development as compared to Freud’s five psychosexual phases.

Footings like arrested development and those that may hold something to make with his conceptualisation of inherent aptitudes helped me understand many of my personal confusions sing certain inner/internal battles in my life ( Halonen & A ; Santrock. 1996 ) . In add-on. Erikson’s description of the psychosocial phases where these are best illustrated during the adolescent old ages such as individuality versus confusion. retrieving those unworried old ages and the subsequent of import passage and determination devising abilities that need be developed helped me associate a batch to many of my escapades and mishaps as a young person. His apt and acute analysis of these phases helped me so and makes me experience at easiness refering the awaited times or periods of old ages in front ( Atkinson et al. . 1993 ; Hurlock. 1964 ) . In add-on. Piaget’s affecting attending to children’s cognitive development helped me recognize why I was so interested in peewee wrestle at such a stamp immature age.

It is ever worthwhile to pass ample clip thought and analyzing the many-faceted dimensions of human character. from physical to cognitive and psychological countries among others. It has contributed a batch to my personal apprehension of self-awareness and the development of the consciousness and sensitiveness of what other worlds like me are traveling through. It caters to a deeper apprehension every bit good as credence of people’s infirmities. and besides their strengths. Freud. Piaget and Erikson’s theories so were validated establishing on my personal timeline/story ; no admiration that these three theories are about everlastingly cemented as classics in the apprehension and predicting of human behaviour.

Mention:

  1. Atkinson. R. L. . R. C. Atkinson. E. E. Smith. D. J. Bem. and S. Nolen-Hoeksema. 1993.Introduction to psychological science.Orlando. Florida: Harcourt Brace and Company.
  2. Halonen. J. S. and J. W. Santrock ( 1996 ) .Psychology: Contexts of behaviour.Dubuque. IA: Brown and Benchmark. p. 810.
  3. Hilgard. E. R. . R. R. Atkinson. and R. C. Atkinson. ( 1979 ) 1983.Introduction to psychological science.7ThursdayEd. New York: Harcourt brace Jovanich. Inc.
  4. Hurlock. E. B. 1964.Child Development. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book Company.
  5. Piaget. J. 1963.The construct of world in the kid.New York: Ballantine Books.
  6. Plotnik. R. 1996.Introduction to psychological science.4Thursdayerectile dysfunction. Pacific Grove. California 93950: Brooks/Cole Printing Company.

Appendix

Major Points ON MY PERSONAL TIMELINE:

-Birth day of the month is April 28. 1983
-start walking at 14 months ;

-Travel to Costa Rica with Grandparents at age 40 ;

-start runt wrestle at age 8
-graduate from junior high at age14/ enter high school ;

-Got licence and purchase ain auto at age 16
-graduated high school at age 18/start college ; –

-Joined the army National Guard at age 19
-got married/have first kid at age 21 ;

-Deployed to Iraq at age 23- have twins at age 23
POSSIBLE FUTURE OUTCOMES ( age represented is my possible age )

– Graduate and go nurse by age 27
-move to new metropolis by age 30 ;

-daughter start high school at age 35

-twins start high school at age 38
-daughter alumnuss high school/starts college at age 39 ;

-Twins graduate high school/start college at age 42
-daughter gets married at age 45
-first grandchild at age 48