1. 1. Nature – raising
Nature refers to the inherited ( familial ) features and inclinations that influence development. It is the abilities that are present at birth. every bit good as any abilities determined by cistrons. On the other manus. raising is the procedures caused by our environment that influences our development. Everything is learned through our interactions with our environment and as a consequence of our experiences. In the yesteryear. hereditary and environmental factors were considered to be runing individually from each other. It was one or the other – nature ( familial ) or raising ( environment ) . Today it is by and large agreed that familial and environment are both of import factors ; development is a combination of both.
Examples: Average length of service is influenced by familial and environmental factors. To increase your opportunities of a long life you need to come from a household with a history of persons who lived to a mature age ( familial factors ) . Environmental factors ; such as diseases. toxins. life style and societal category are besides of import factors that influence length of service. A individual who makes hapless lifestyle picks and live in an destitute country will diminish his/her opportunities of a long life. Therefore it can be said that both nature and raising play a function in a individual populating to a mature age.
1. 2. Stability – alteration
The stableness versus alteration construct explores how much of one’s behavior is consistent and how much is mutable over a lifetime. Simply put. we can inquire whether development is best characterized by stableness ( for illustration. does a behavior or trait such as shyness stay stable in its look over clip? ) or alteration ( could a person’s grade of shyness fluctuate across the life span? ) . Stability at a basic degree is critical for us to acknowledge that we are still the same individual as we grow older. But we besides like to believe that our features are non set in rock. that we can alter ourselves if we want to. Psychoanalysts believe that personality traits developed in the first 5 old ages predict grownup personality. Change theorists argue that personalities are modified by interactions with household. experiences at school. and socialization.
Example: Costa and McCrae ( 1994 ; 1997 ) have investigated whether the traits that make up the five-factor theoretical account remain stable across maturity and came to the general decision that personality traits remain stable after age 30. If a 30 twelvemonth old adult female worried overly about whether or non her husband’s wage was adequate to do mortgage payments. so she besides is likely to be worried about holding saved adequate for her children’s college tuition when she is 45 and is likely to be worried about the adequateness of her husband’s pension income at age 70. Since Costa and McCrae suggest that personality traits remain stable through maturity a high grade of neurosis. as reflected by a consistent and inordinate degree of anxiousness and concern. is likely to prevail and happen new focal points over clip.
“However. there is grounds that alteration can be found in personality trait development across the grownup life span. Allemand et Al. ( 2008 ) found that the manner people differ in their personality becomes more marked with older age. Furthermore. other surveies ( Donnellan & A ; Lucas. 2008 ) found that extroversion and openness lessening with age whereas agreeableness additions with age” ( Blanchard-Fields & A ; Cavanaugh. 2011. p. 321 ) .
1. 3. Continuity – discontinuity
The continuity versus discontinuity contention trades with the inquiry of whether development is a gradual. smooth patterned advance from construct to decease ( continuity ) . or a series of distinguishable and disconnected displacements ( discontinuity ) . Continuity focuses on quantitative alterations in figure or sum. such as alterations in tallness and weight. Discontinuity focuses on qualitative alterations in sort. construction. or organisation.
An illustration of continuity is: Babies who have fulfilling emotional relationships with their parents typically become kids with fulfilling peer relationships. And they will finally go grownups with fulfilling relationships with others.
An illustration of discontinuity: After passing most of maturity seeking to guarantee the success of the following coevals and to go forth a bequest. older grownups turn to measuring their ain lives in hunt of closing and a sense that what they have accomplished has been meaningful.
1. 4. Universal versus context-specific development
This concerns whether or non there is one way of development or several.
Examples: David Schmitt and co-workers ( 2004 ) investigated whether one’s attachment manner may hold a major influence on how one forms romantic relationships. The consequences showed that 79 % of the cultural groups studied demonstrated secure romantic fond regards. but that North American civilizations tended to be dismissive and East Asiatic civilizations tended to be high on bemused romantic fond regard. Overall. Schmitt and co-workers concluded that although the same attachment form holds across most civilizations. no 1 form holds across all of them. East Asiatic civilizations in peculiar tend to suit a form in which people report that others do non acquire as emotionally near as the respondent would wish. and that respondents find it hard to swear others or to depend on them.