Marx analyses the societal construction and societal dealingss from an economic footing. Great importance to the development of his theory is the division of labor, the industrial development and the relationships created through capitalist economy.
Marx considers that societal alteration will comes through category struggle and battle. The division of labor creates an built-in struggle in society and merely through this struggle will be solved the job of societal inequality. This inequality exists because the middle class dominates the working category economically, socially and politically.
The middle class dominates economically through production. Capitalists control production and of class the net incomes of the production belong to them. Even the labor conversed to merchandise. It is a merchandise, which capitalists can purchase and take advantage of it, by seeking net income.
The societal domination is based on the fact that the capitalist system makes the laborers to believe that there is equality. The laborers do non understand that capital exploit their labor and see that the life they are populating is good for them. So, because of the false scruples, laborers perceive the capitalist system as a natural and necessary map of society.
Finally there is the political domination which wield through the province. In his earlier Hagiographas Marx believed that “ the province is a category province ” , because one category tries to rule over the others through the power that province gives. The province contributes to the care of the middle class and promotes its involvements. However, in his ulterior Hagiographas, Marx develops another signifier of domination more complex. He makes a differentiation of dominant category between the opinion and non opinion category. The opinion category is the regulating category. Therefore regulating category is the 1 that controls the province setup and exercising power through the province in order to be economically benefited the dominant category. This means there is non throughout the dominant category the same construction and how its involvements may be conflicting. For Marx the province should be centralized, while cease to be inequality should discontinue to be categories.
An illustration application of Marx theory is the Soviet Union. The province was centralized, viz. there was no belongings. Everything was under province ‘s control for case, industry, concerns, belongingss, to mane but a few. On the other manus, the capitalist states were a strong influence, through their merchandises, on Soviet Union citizens. Therefore the province did non supply all the basic necessities which people asked, whether it thought it was non necessary. Hence, the province had a signifier of absolutism after restricting besides some freedoms such as it was non easy for person to go forth the state. Furthermore the regulations that existed were non to the full implemented and as a consequence that have led to corruptness. The economic inequality had non ceased to be, chiefly through the unequal distribution of rewards. What basically brought about the prostration of the system was low productiveness, due to miss of control over workers, the ferocious competition from other states and the bad use of economic system.
Therefore in pattern, that is the theory of Marx, failed something that vindicates Weber who thought it as “ Utopia ” .
Weber analyses the society through societal action, viz. what intending give by persons in the societal content and how they behave on the footing of this. For Weber societal phenomena do non hold the same content with each other but they have the same signifier. Therefore Weber mentioned the ideal types which are used as a methodological tool to be able to compare, understand and explicate societal phenomena. However ideal types do non conform to empirical world because are pure types. Harmonizing to Weber the ideal types are three: 1 ) historical formation, 2 ) abstract type and 3 ) action type.
Following Weber considers that there are four types of societal action:
1 ) Rational action: though this type persons moving for spiritual, aesthetic, ethical grounds and it is non of their primary concern to accomplish an terminal.
2 ) Rational goal-oriented: Acts of the Apostless in this type made for a personal intent and the accomplishment of this intent is really of import.
3 ) Affectual action: concern self-generated Acts of the Apostless because of the emotions.
4 ) Traditional action: for Acts of the Apostless done under the usage and tradition.
On this footing of these four types Weber makes a differentiation between action that is calculated and based on logic, and behavior referred as self-generated Acts of the Apostless without the witting pick. The thought of Weber to understand single actions differ between behaviour and act because through behavioural act we can non hold subjective significances as a consequence of wont and automatic reaction which govern them. Therefore there are two ways of apprehension, harmonizing to Weber through: 1 ) direct apprehension, that is Acts of the Apostless with seeable significance, for case, the dependence of two Numberss and 2 ) explanatory apprehension, were we look for the motivation of the action. Namely what indicate the single given the inducement and made in pattern.
Furthermore, Weber places great importance on Rationalization, that is, the manner people approach ends and the manner they attach intending in societal action based on strong beliefs. He distinguishes rationalisation in substantial reason and formal reason. In substantial belong the ideals, like freedom, equality in which persons based in order to better society. While Formal reason concerns the ways and means people use to keep power.
Weber believes that the domination of one people on another can non discontinue to be. The struggle and battle for power is something built-in in societal dealingss and there is in all domains of societal life. Alternatively Marx determined domination simply in economic footings by utilizing the societal categories and production. Weber stresses that the battle of adult male to derive power is non motivated merely in economic benefits but besides in other facets, like position. Weber therefore, rejects the place of Marx that societal alteration comes through the equal distribution of economic power.
Once such a domination of one homo over another is an built-in inclination, and so Weber considers that the being of a Democracy in which all are equal and no 1 dominates anyone ( Soviet Union ) is a “ Utopia ” . He of class recognizes the spread of Democracy as a political system but within this system the power of bureaucratism going more legion through the province setup. On the other, with increasing of laterality of bureaucratism, the smaller is the human motive and action. The bureaucratism is a legal-rational authorization, which through the disposal, subordinates persons to rational legitimacy. This disposal is hierarchal, based on makings and is non elected, like a magnetic leader but appointed.
Furthermore Weber lineations three ideal types of authorization:
1 ) Charismatic authorization: The being of a magnetic leader whose power is based on the religion of his followings. It means that he should invariably keep his legitimacy.
2 ) Traditional authorization: For this type legitimacy lies in the tradition or usage
3 ) Rational legal authorization: In this type legitimacy lies in the creative activity of Torahs and ordinances with which people must follow.
In this signifier of legitimacy, which followed by rationalisation is the bureaucratism. A domination from which we can non get away ( iron coop ) .