Summary “How to”


The job of a reporter is to recall relevant social and economic accounts that take place daily without siding on an issue. Majority of the time, journalists and reporters lack credibility to prove the accuracy or falsity of the information that they release to the public. While some seldom favors an issue relative to their opinion, others remain neutral and make the great refusal. Gladstone indirectly refers to the “Great Refusal” by providing brief historic scenarios that elucidate the controversy of media bias against society.

She introduces a scene from the poem “Inferno” to provide a visual that illustrates the million of lost souls trapped for eternity in Hades. These lost souls, or the neutrals, “refused to commit themselves”. If they had put their trust in the bible and believe in GOD then they wouldn’t be stuck in a solemn place near the gates of hell. Even though the “anguished souls” didn’t commit any evil intentions, confusion and uncertainty about the presence of GOD lead them to remain neutral during this moral crisis.

The great refusal can have a positive or negative outcome that can influence how society views the media, whether it contains “moral courage” or “culpable bias”. Gladstone concludes her textual conceptualization by referring to the NY Times publisher, who performed his speech by taking on a more liberal biased approach to the public. If he had refused to commit to a fixed opinion then his “great refusal” would have prevented bias and maybe the man wouldn’t have the urge to “puke” after reading only a few paragraphs of the New York Times.