Unit Psychology

May 15, 2018

Golden Papers

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The ages of these stages are also milestones in development, many relating to a child’s focus in relationship to the world and an increasing divestiture of egocentrism with a better understanding of the self and the relationship of the self to others (Schultz, & Schultz, 2008). Cognition is a person’s competencies to describe what they are able to do. Knowing that one can perform a certain behavior does not mean that they will do so. (Cloninger, Friedman, & Schustack, 2010, page 373) Behavioral and physiological research generally supports Eysenck’s view.

When introverts and extraverts are presented with a range of intense stimuli, introverts respond more strongly, including salivating more when a drop of lemon juice is placed on their tongues and reacting more negatively to electric shocks or loud noises (Bartol & Costello 1976; Stelmack, 1990). This reactively has an impact on the ability to concentrate. Extraverts tend to perform well at tasks that are done in a noisy, arousing environment, such as bartending or even teaching, where introverts are better in tranquil surroundings (Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2009) 2.

Explain how evolutionary, biological/genetic, and environmental (i. e. learning) factors can result in the development of an aggressive personality. Evolutionary and biological/genetic factors definitely contribute to the development of an aggressive personality. Animals, including humans, are born with in-built instincts to perform adaptive behaviors. These instincts include many reflexes and relatively straightforward behaviors, such as food-seeking behavior which require aggressive behaviors. Cognitive development is biological and can be influenced by experience.

According to Walter Mischel cognitive person variables are important to personality development because they are the cognitive factors within a person, less global than traits, which influence how an individual adapts to the environment (Cloninger, Friedman, & Schustack, 2010, page 379). Biological and environmental factors can shape our cognitive processes by the different styles of people, cultures, and genders that can affect interpretation of a behavior as some might not respond to reward or punishment.

There are always unique situations and interpersonal events that help to shape our personalities. Such things as having unhealthy parents, having an abusive spouse, being a victim of a crime, even being disfigured from a severe accident of some sort, these are ways that can leave mental scars that make us fearful and less trusting. When examining the world we live in today, everything seems to happen in cycles. Look at fashion, it repeats itself in cycles, each time adding a little different twist or broadening the scope. The same is said for abuse which comes from an aggressive personality.

Violence and abuse repeats in its own never ending cycle unless someone steps with intervention, giving options to another path to follow with hope for change. Victims repeatedly ask the question “How did this happen to me? ” The exhaustion of being a victim steals self confidence, and destroys self-esteem where there is no more self-worth. Life becomes fearful, insecure with everything decision attempted to be made, ultimately making dependence on the abuser. Everything about life’s identity, purpose, right down to the economic survival revolves about the aggressor.

Although not every aggressive personality will result in becoming an abusive individual, being aggressive is a must in a career of sales or even in the sport arena where there is a great deal of competition. These would be areas where aggression could result in a positive mode. 3. How do parents influence a child’s personality according to each theory: evolutionary, biological/genetic, and behavioral? An infant in a third world country, born with low birth weight often displays a sharp, shrill cry and has difficulty nursing.

Because of these factors and the baby’s fragile appearance, a mother who otherwise might feel confident may become anxious and uncertain about her abilities as a caregiver. Her apprehension may translate into inconsistent behaviors that would cause the baby to respond with irregular patterns of feeding and sleeping. As a consequence, achievements in areas of development may be delayed (Bukatko, 2008). Studies have shown that daycares do not do a grave disservice to the attachment of children or infants however in the 1980’s a study did prove the behavior between children of daycare and children who stayed home were different.

With many parents not having the choice to have one stay at home with the children it is necessary to enroll a child in daycare. Another study conducted in Australia shows that moreover the facility itself it’s the mother’s attitude that relays and is projected onto the child. (Bukatko, 2008) Understanding this knowledge can ease the guilt somewhat for parents if they understand that by having a positive attitude and showing excitement can make the experience a good thing. It can be viewed that the parent isn’t abandoning the child but in fact broadening the infant’s world by opening it up to a social atmosphere.

Biological and environmental factors can shape how we behave. A fifteen year old boy realizes that he has spells of anxiety. His father and older brother suffer from anxiety attacks as well. It seems to be a trait passed down genetically, however the mother has suffered from anxiety attacks but only after being victim of crime and in time they went away with counseling and over coming her PTSD. Her anxiety was due to an environmental occurrence and did not remain with her but affected her personality and disposition for a couple of years.

Nothing traumatic has happened in the boys life or environment to make him suffer with anxiety attacks so we have to look at the pattern within his father and older brother, in conclusion it must be caused by biological tendency. Behavioral, the cycle of intimate partner violence can be isolated to an individual as they continue repeating what becomes a lifestyle of unhealthy relationships. The cycle becomes a generational problem when children are in homes with abuse and witness to violence. Environment takes on the majority responsibility of who a person becomes and provides the atmosphere of education.

If a child is witness to abuse and violence; accepting it as a normal reaction of life, the abuse is expected to repeat itself through each generation it touches 4. What is self-efficacy? How does self-efficacy relate to personality? What “nature” and “nurture” factors contribute to one’s self-efficacy? Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory emphasizes the role of observational learning, social experience and reciprocal determinism in personality development (Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2009). A person’s attitudes, abilities, and cognitive skills comprise what is known as the self-system.

Self-efficacy plays an essential part of this self-system according to Bandura. Self esteem is important to a person’s self-regard. The higher self esteem a person has the happier they appear. Low self esteem breeds depression and tendency to engage in criminal activity and self loathing. Self efficacy is simply a fancy way of saying “the ability to sustain oneself and one’s self confidence”. Psychologists have argued for years on the nature vs. nurture, and efficacy is more widely believed to deal with nurture. Nature vs. nurture basically suggests that we develop who we are, influenced from our genetics or the environment that we live in.