Management Practise


Practice new Research the history of management and how relevant these theories are in today’s environment and future management practice Over time many theories have been developed that contribute towards the management practice of today. It is important to understand management theories; they provide a stable focus for understanding what we experience, they provide criteria for what is relevant, also Theories enable us to communicate efficiently and move into more complex relationships with other people (Olum, 2004, p11)

The history of management includes great theories such as Fredrick Taylor’s Scientific Management, Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Works experiments and the human relations movement, Max Weber’s idealized bureaucracy, and Henri Fayol’s views on administration. (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) Fredrick Taylor’s (1856-1917) Scientific Management started the era of modern management.

Scientific management’s organizational influences can be seen in the development of the fields of industrial engineering, personnel, and quality control (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm). Taylor’s Theory still has relevance in how businesses operate today. A prime example is within the retail industry; the separate elements of a job are detailed, and how and when workers should go about carrying out daily tasks.

This type of job is fragmented into the smallest elements both in the scope of the task and the skill that the task involves (Stuart’s Blog, 19 Jan 2009) While Taylor had an impact on the establishment of the industrial engineering, quality control and personnel departments, the theorist Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Works experiments had a great impact on the human relations movement. The seemingly new concepts of “group dynamics”, “teamwork” and organizational “social systems” all stem from Mayo’s work in the mid-1920’s. (http://www. ernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm). Classical organisational theory This category of management theory is the work of Mark Weber’s bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayols’s administration theory. “Max Weber was attempting to do for sociology what Taylor had done for industrial operations. ” (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) He proposed different characteristics found in effective bureaucracies that would conduct decision making effectively, control resources, protect workers and achieve organisational goals.

With two exceptions, Henri Fayol’s theories of administration dovetail nicely into the bureaucratic superstructure described by Weber. While Weber laid out principles for an ideal bureaucratic organization Fayol’s work is more directed at the management layer. (Fayol’s five principle roles of management) Max Weber’s principles of an ideal bureaucracy still ring true today and many of the evils of today’s bureaucracies come from their deviating from those ideal principles. Fayol’s five principle roles of management are still actively practiced today. Plan, Organize, Command, Co-ordinate and Control are widely used by managers today. The concept of giving appropriate authority with responsibility is also widely commented on (if not well practiced) It is clear that modern organizations are strongly influenced by the theories of Taylor, Mayo, Weber and Fayol. Their precepts have become such a strong part of modern management that it is difficult to believe that these concepts were original and new at some point in history.

The modern idea that these concepts are “common sense” is strong tribute to these founders. Managers who apply theory to managing must usually blend principles with realities. Once managers know about theory, they will have the capacity to forestall future problems that may occur in the enterprise. (print out) involves (Stuart’s Blog, 19 Jan 2009) stuartgb. wordpress. com/2009/01/19/taylorism-is-it-relevant-today operations. ” (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) He proposed