Sigmund Freud


According to the theory described by Sigmund Freud, there is a relation between basic instinct of human beings and aggression of an individual which is known as the death instinct. This theory is also based on the theory of evolution of nature which showed that the strong side will survive. For instance, two hunters which are starved for 3 days are hunting for a deer will try to harm each other so that they can have the deer for the whole family. Hence, if this situation happens gradually, hunters will eventually become more and more aggressive to obtain the greater chance of survival.

The theory which is known as frustration-aggression theory had proposed the idea that aggression is developed due to the presence of frustration. Frustration is defined as the obstruction of goals of an individual. However, the severity of aggression is based on the different level and capricious of the frustration. For instance, an individual needed an amount of money to pay for an emergency surgery of his or her children due to an accident. If he or she knows that there are still families or friends who are able to help him then the aggression will be not so severe.

However, if there is no any helps around then he or she might act very aggressively. The aversive emotional arousal hypothesis suggests that the appearance of the aggression is due to other bad events happen around the individual such as furious or sickness. For example, an individual who is having a chronic disease or facing the economical problem will act aggressively to their family. The theory is the social learning theory which demonstrated that individual will act aggressively to reach their goals.

For example, when a individual watch a soccer match where a footballer act aggressively to injured a player and win the ball, he also will try to act like the footballer in order to win a soccer match. In the society, conflict normally happens in between the same group or population of human being due to the close relations and communications. For instances, the probability of abuse is equal in all the different races. Gender is an important factors in aggression which a men usually the side which is aggressive compared to the woman which is normally the victim.

This is due to norm where men is physically and mentally more powerful than woman. However the role of genders is not applied in all situations, for instances, in a family, daughter and son is equally abused by parents. Attribution of attack is crucial in precipitating an aggressive act of an individual which is under attacked. When a person is aware of a person who might act aggressively towards himself then the probability of this person to act aggressively is increased in order to protect themselves or revenge.

The understanding of the ability to retaliate may cause or prevent a conflict to happens. For instances, when a person know that the opponents which he or she is dealing have the ability to fight back then the person behavior might not be aggressive. A displayed aggression is a person will turned their aggressive to other person when he or she know that he cannot act aggressively to the initial cause of the aggression. Situation also plays an important role in the occurrence of aggression. A potential reward is one of the situations which will lead to the occurrence of aggression.

Factors such as social status and material will cause the enhancement of the aggression in an individual to achieve their purposes. For instances, a robber will act extremely aggressive to the guard of a bank who try to stop him from robbing the bank. Another situation is the present of models or examples which lead to the appearance of idea of aggression in an individual. The presence of models will show the way the act aggressively, affect the attitude to certain idea and results of the aggressive act.

For instances, a person will copy his friends behavior which using aggressive behavior to gain certain benefits from others. Society norm also influence in the behavior of a person. For instances, revenge to anyone who have criticize us no matter for good or bad purposes is normal in this society. Besides that, a person in stress also will show more aggressive act. For example, in our society those who create problem such as abuse, murder or robbing normally are those who face economical stress. An aggressive cue is any substances or thinking which will facilitate the development of an aggressive act.

For instances, when there is a knife in hand, a person will have more will to rob a person if compare to those without any weapons. There is numerous solution for the development of aggressive act. Since we know that aggression is due to the presence of frustration, we must first try to reduce or prevent the appearance of frustrations. For instances, when there is a problem in a family or among friends, criticism or blaming each other will only increase the frustration. However, the true solution for the problem is try to communicate and figured out a solution which is the best in all aspects.

Another solution is we should punish person who had done the aggressive act. However, the punishment should fulfill the following requirement as logic, legal and punishment must be applied after the aggression. For example, a robber should be jailed for years so that when he is released, he will refused to rob again and people will realize that the punishment of robbery is such heavy and this will prevent them to do the same act. Besides, the presence of models that is success without using an aggressive act also a very effective solution.

For example, in soccer team that a person support, the favorite player is very discipline and are not aggressive when playing, then the person also will be act like his favorite player in the soccer match he plays. Another solution is by catharsis which is converting the aggression act in the other way instead of the original causes. For instances, a person who are angry after scolded by the boss cannot act aggressively to the boss to prevent loss of his job will turn his aggressive act towards a sport like playing a tennis match or a football match.