Anthropology 250 March 13, 2012 Midterm Section 1: Short Answer 2. List and briefly explain the three goals of archaeology. How do they apply and differ from the earlier paradigms of archaeology? * The three goals of archaeology are the study of culture history, reconstruct past life ways, and understand cultural processes. The study of culture history is to piece together the history of how culture changes over time. To reconstruct past life ways is a complex process that involves a good deal of analysis which is to figure out as much you can about the people who lived at a particular site or civilization.
To understand cultural processes entails trying to figure out how and why material culture has changed which happens in three ways invention (innovation), diffusion (spread), migration (moving to a different place). The earlier ways paradigms of archaeology apply and differ from the three goals of archaeology are the theoretical framework, assumptions, the explanations and causes, and point of view. There are currently two major paradigms in archaeology which are post-processual and processual archaeology paradigms, but the two paradigms spoken in class are antiquarianism and reconstruction.
Antiquarianism is the old paradigm which archaeologists use to go after the expensive items. Reconstruction is the new paradigm which archaeologists consider every artifact as important in relation to everything else to solve the puzzle. 4. Why is Alaska so important archaeologically? What theory prevailed until recently and what is your opinion about it? Why is it so hard to do archaeology in Alaska? * Alaska is so important archaeologically because Alaska is connected to Beringia (aka the land bridge) which connected Asia to Alaska.
Beringia is the portal that migrated people searching for mammoth to the United States this theory is proven by scientists. But, apparently there are older sites in South America, Pittsburg, etc. In the 1930s or 1940s scientists figured out how most of the world was populated, but nobody (scientists) could never really figure out how North and South American were populated. By the 1950s scientists looked at genealogy, botany, paleontology, language, and blood groups and what they pieced together was that people migrated because the seas had reseed twice (Beringia).
Since there is so much evidence proving this theory I agree with it, but I, also, believe that some people may have migrated to these places boats in search of food. The reason why it is hard to do archaeology in Alaska because of permafrost, vastness, expensive, underwater, small campsites, and remote which is why it is very hard to find old sites. 10. What is trepanation? When did it start? What are the current theories about it? What are people doing it now? Why did they do it in the past? Trepanation is the removal of a piece of bone from the skull. According to Merriam-Webster (2012), trepanation is also known as trephination; it is an act or instance of perforating the skull with a surgical instrument. Trepanation has been done since the Stone Age. Trepanation was popular to the old Neolithic in Europe in 3000 BC. The current theory of trepanation now is to increase one’s consciousness and relieve acute pressure on the brain. Trepanation is illegal in America, but some people travel to Mexico to do one.
In the past people did trepanation to relieve intracranial pressure from diseases or trauma, and the belief that an evil spirit lives in the head and must be lead out. 11. What is pseudoscience? Cite at least three examples of pseudoscience in archaeology and what you think about these examples? Pseudoscience is in other words fake science. Pseudo means fake in Latin. It is theories, methods, and assumptions that are not scientific. Some examples of pseudoscience in archaeology are Bigfoot, the show Ancient Aliens, and Conspiracy Theories.
The show on Animal Planet called “Finding Bigfoot” is pseudoscience because currently on their last show supposedly they had a Bigfoot respond to their call. In my mind I feel this is a hoax because how would we know what Bigfoots eat, what their calls sound like, and how they reside in the forest. I do not want to be naive because I do believe there are things about there we still have not come across or animals that we believe are extinct, but these things are just open interpretations with no valid proof. The show Ancient Aliens does tend to trick me sometimes; specially, with a part referenced from the bible about the creation of mankind. The genesis verse line 26 states, “Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground. ” Totally blew my mind and had me really think about this theory because when you think about what do you mean by let us and our image is their another world out there, is there more than one God? It really had at a pensive state.
A conspiracy theory would be the saying, “we never landed on the moon” because there should be only one light source on the pictures and there seems to be more than one light source. Also, the picture of the American flag seems to be waving when the moon is airless. 15. Please discuss three ways to determine the age/sex of a skeleton in some detail (attached in the back). Section 2: 1. Stratigraphic Profile (attached in the back). 2. Answer the questions listed under the mask. a. Dear I. M. Kluless, I cannot tell you anything about the mask because it has been taken out of context.
Context is the vital aspect of archaeological information meaning it is the physical setting, location, and association of artifacts and features. Context is so important to archaeologists because it provides many of the information archaeologists need to determine the significance and authenticity. The more that is known about the object the better archaeologists can understand the history of the people who made them. Respectfully, Mrs. Christmas 3. Please discuss your research topic on the particular civilization you have chosen. b.
My research topic civilization is on Egypt and I chose to talk about King Tut. Section 3 Part 1: 1. In the attachments section of the exam you will find the story “A modern Bedtime Story”. Read it and answer the questions a-e. a. Professor Chardonney should be considered for murder because at the end of the day that offspring was half human just like him. b. Yes, it is a mixture of Australopithecus afarensis and Homo sapiens, but the point of the field study was to discover the truth of our human origins which makes Australopithecus afarensis a vital being.
Professor Chardonney kidnapped the offspring, hit it on the head, and buried it. This would be considered murder for Homo sapiens and this offspring would have been valued in our society to expose the truth of the creation. c. Six traits or characteristics that separate us from apes are: the dexterous hands, teeth and jaws, sexual dimorphism, extended infant care, relatively large brains, and upright posture (bipedalism). d. As I read the Anthropological researchers’ ethical obligations I cannot help, but think Professor Chardonney was just trying to follow the code of ethics.
Especially when AAA (1998) states, “These obligations can supersede the goal of seeking new knowledge, and can lead to decisions not to undertake or to discontinue a research project when the primary obligation conflicts with other responsibilities, such as those owed to sponsors or clients. ” But, to counter act this statement the code of ethics that would apply to Frere Jacque as it states, “Anthropological researchers who have developed close and enduring relationships (i. e. covenantal relationships) with either individual persons providing information or with hosts must adhere to the obligations of openness and informed consent, while carefully and respectfully negotiating the limits of the relationship. ” In this case the guidelines for the ethical choices made were to destroy the evidence since it would have created another dilemma because it was ethically wrong. AAA (1998) states, “No code or set of guidelines can anticipate unique circumstances or direct actions in specific situations. ” So, this leads me to say we cannot blame Professor Chardonney for his actions. . Medical testing on primates is a dilemma that is not easily resolved because of their similarities with us. I feel the medical testing on primates is a server issue that needs to be addressed because no animal should suffer from experiments with finding a cure. Especially, raising these primates for research and then giving the primates away or killing them because there are too many. If a loved one suffered from one of the diseases being tested on animals I would prefer to take a blood sample and test the cure on human blood then to risk either life.
In my opinion, I would be a little satisfied with testing on rodents, but either way a life is a life and everyone or everything has feelings. Section 3 Part 2: 1. Shanidar I: a. Shanidar I injuries could have been caused by close encounters with large game. Since Neanderthals were large game hunters they hunted reindeer in the west and mammoths in the east using wooden spears. Shanidar I survived to be a senior citizen by Neanderthals standards because Neanderthals cared for their sick and elderly. Neanderthals were the first to show signs of empathy. I believe Neanderthals engaged in some kind of symbolic behavior for foraging, moving, etc. hroughout the day in order to get things accomplished. I am not saying they had verbal ability like us, but I feel they had some kind of communication. Observation and inference is a major part in describing the burials of the Neanderthals. An observation is a statement describing a fact using your five senses. An inference is a mental judgment of an observation. Neanderthals created the first intentional burial of the dead in graves. Their burials sometimes contained flowers, tools, or food and Neanderthals placed the bodies of their dead in a flexed position supposedly with a big slab on top of the body.
Also, Neanderthals had an exotic practice which is difficult to understand. Neanderthals had some kind of cannibalism ritual, archaeologists have found burned human bones, split to extract the bone marrow which was treated the same way Neanderthals did with the animal bones. Two sites where Neanderthals burials have been found are La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France and La Ferrassie Cave, Iraq. In 1908, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France Amadee and Jean Bouyssonie and L. Bardon found “the old man of La Chapelle” inside of a limestone bedrock small cave. He was about 60,000 years old and a nearly complete male skeleton.
In 1909, Louis Capital and Denis Peyrony discovered a total of eight Neanderthal individuals which were adults, children, infants, and two fetuses intentionally buried. The approximate age of these individuals is between 70,000 and 50,000 years old. There are two theories I have found to be interesting about what happened to the Neanderthals. The first theory is the Neanderthals lost in a gruesome competition with the Homo sapiens because at the time the Homo sapiens were technologically more advanced with their tools and linguistic. People believe there was an act of violent and direct behavior, indirect behavior, or both.
The second theory is Homo sapiens and Neanderthals mated together which is why Neanderthals do not exist anymore because the Homo sapiens genes were stronger than the Neanderthals. I believe the Neanderthals disappeared because of a competition between the Homo sapiens. Who’s to say the human bones found from cannibalism with teeth marks are not by the Homo sapiens. I, also, believe this war between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals shows how much more advanced with strategy the Homo sapiens were. I feel as if the Homo sapiens were hunting the Neanderthals to secure the future of their own species.