Human Resource Management

March 14, 2019

Golden Papers

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Human resources development lies at the heart of economic, social and environmental development. It is also a vital component for achieving internationally agreed sustainable development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, and for expanding opportunities to all people, particularly the most vulnerable groups and individuals in society as noted by Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2012.

In this report I will reflect on the human resources department and how it seems to be the storehouse for maintaining the history and successfulness of an organization; from Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection, EEO and Affirmative Action, Human resources development, Compensation and benefits, Safety and Health, and Employee and labor relations. Proactive planning is the key to effective recruitment and selection action.

Human Resource Planning ‘Businesses rely on effective human resource management (HRM ) to ensure that they hire and keep good employees , and that they are able to respond to conflicts between workers and management . HRM specialists initially determine the number and type of employees that a business will need over its first few years of operation. They are then responsible for recruiting new employees to replace those who leave and for filling newly created positions. (enote. com) The job description and the job specification are useful tools for the staffing process, the first of the seven HR functions to be discussed.

Someone (e. g. , a department manager) or some event (e. g. , an employee’s leaving) within the organization usually determines a need to hire a new employee. In large organizations, an employee requisition must be submitted to the HR department that specifies the job title, the department, and the date the employee is needed. From there, the job description can be referenced for specific job related qualifications to provide more detail when advertising the position internally, externally, or both (Mondy and Noe, 1996).

Not only must the HR department attract qualified applicants through job postings or other forms of advertising, but it also assists in screening candidates’ resumes and bringing those with the proper qualifications in for an interview. The final say in selecting the candidate will probably be the line manager’s, assuming all Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) requirements are met. Other ongoing staffing responsibilities involve planning for new or changing positions and reviewing current job analyses and job descriptions to make sure they accurately reflect the current position.

Once a talented individual is brought into an organization, another function of HRM comes into play an environment that will motivate and reward exemplary performance. One way to assess performance is through a formal review on a periodic basis, generally annually, known as a performance appraisal or performance evaluation. Because line managers are in daily contact with the employees and can best measure performance, they are usually the ones who conduct the appraisals.

Other evaluators of the employee’s performance can include subordinates, peers, group, and self, or a combination of one or more (Mondy and Noe, 1996). Just as there can be different performance evaluators, depending on the job, several appraisal systems can be used. Some of the popular appraisal methods include (1) ranking of all employees in a group; (2) using rating scales to define above-average, average, and below-average performance; (3) recording favorable and unfavorable performance, known as critical incidents; and (4) managing by objectives, or MBO (Mondy and Noe, 1996).

Cherrington (1995) states that performance appraisals serve several purposes, including:(1) guiding human resource actions such as hiring, firing, and promoting; (2) rewarding employees through bonuses, promotions, and so on;(3) providing feedback and noting areas of improvement; (4) identifying training and development needs in order to improve the individual’s performance on the job; and (5) providing job related data useful in human resource planning.

Performance appraisals not only assist in determining compensation and benefits, but they are also instrumental in identifying ways to help individuals improve their current positions and prepare for future opportunities. As the structure of organizations continues to change rough downsizing or expansion he need for training and development programs continues to grow. Improving or obtaining new skills is part of another area of HRM, known as training and development.

Training focuses on learning the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to initially perform a job or task or to improve upon the performance of a current job or task, while development activities are not job related, but concentrate on broadening the employee’s horizons” which focuses on learning new skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be used in future work according to Nadler and Wiggs, 1986.

Training can be used in a variety of ways, including (1) orienting and informing employees, (2) developing desired skills, (3) preventing accidents through safety training, (4) supplying professional and technical education, and (5) providing supervisory training and executive education (Cherrington, 1995). Each of the training methods mentioned has benefits to the individual as well as to the organization.

Some of the benefits are reducing the learning time for new hires, teaching employees how to use new or updated technology, decreasing the number and cost of accidents because employees know how to operate a machine properly, providing better customer service, improving quality and quantity of productivity, and obtaining management involvement in the training process (Cherrington, 1995). When managers go through the training, they are showing others that they are taking the goals of training seriously and are committed to the importance of human resource development.

The type of training depends on the material to be learned, the length of time learners have, and the financial resources available. One type is instructor-led training, which generally allows participants to see a demonstration and to work with the product first-hand. On-the-job training and apprenticeships let participants acquire new skills as they continue to perform various aspects of the job. Computer-based training (CBT) provides learners at various geographic locations access to material to be learned at convenient times and locations.

Simulation exercises give participants a chance to learn outcomes of choices in a nonthreatening environment before applying the concept to real situations. Training focuses on the current job, while development concentrates on providing activities to help employees expand their current knowledge and to allow for growth. Types of development opportunities include mentoring, career counseling, management and supervisory development, and job training (Cherrington, 1995).

A business‘s HRM division also trains or arranges for the training of its staff to encourage worker productivity, efficiency, and satisfaction, and to promote the overall success of the business. Finally , human resource managers create workers ‘ compensation plans and benefit packages for employees . The larger employers of labor now have labor relations , or industrial relations , departments dealing with problems in the negotiation and administration of agreements .

Such departments are usually divided into two branches, one responsible for day-to-day administration of agreements relating to wages and salaries, the other responsible for such matters as assignments to work, schedules of work, layoffs, promotions, discipline, grievances, and arbitration. As noted by Olympia Levine 2008. Many international unions adapted their organizational structures to those of the principal companies with which they deal.

These unions have specialists trained and assigned to deal with management specialists in matters relating to negotiations , grievances , arbitration , legal services , social security and welfare services , industrial engineering , economics , and public relations. Industrial Management, in business, term used to describe the techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.

In the theory of industrial management, organization has two principal aspects. One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility, drawn usually in the form of an organization chart that designates the executives of the business, from the president to the foreperson or department head, and specifies the functions for which they are responsible. As noted by Media hex The other principal aspect relates to he development of a staff of qualified executives . Planning in industrial management has three principal aspects. One is the establishment of broad basic policies with respect to production sales the purchase of equipment, materials, and supplies and accounting. The second aspect relates to the implementation of these policies by departments. The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments.

Direction is concerned primarily with supervision and guidance by the executive in authority in this connection a distinction is generally made between top management, which is essentially administrative in nature, and operative management, which is concerned with the direct execution of policy according to Media hex Just as human resource developers make sure employees have proper training, there are groups of employees organized as unions to address and resolve employment-related issues. Unions have been around since the time of the American Revolution (Mondy and Noe, 1996).

Those who join unions usually do so for one or both of two reasons to increase wages and/or to eliminate unfair conditions. Some of the outcomes of union involvement include better medical plans, extended vacation time, and increased wages (Cherrington, 1995). Today, unions remain a controversial topic. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire non-union workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired.

The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file unfair labor practice complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions (Cherrington, 1995). Not only do HR managers deal with union organizations, but they are also responsible for resolving collective bargaining the contract. The contract defines employment related issues such as compensation and benefits, working conditions, job security, discipline procedures, individuals’ rights, management’s rights, and contract length.

Collective bargaining involves management and the union trying to resolve any issues peacefully for the union finds it necessary to strike or picket and/or management decides to institute a lockout (Cherrington, 1995). Carter McNamara suggest that . Employee benefits typically refers to retirement plans, health life insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, vacation, employee stock ownership plans, etc. Benefits are increasingly expensive for businesses to provide to employees, so the range and options of benefits are changing rapidly to include, for example, flexible benefit plans.

Benefits are forms of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job. Some benefits, such as unemployment and worker’s compensation, are federally required. (Worker’s compensation is really a worker’s right, rather than a benefit. ) Prominent examples of benefits are insurance (medical, life, dental, disability, unemployment and worker’s compensation), vacation pay, holiday pay, and maternity leave, contribution to retirement (pension pay), profit sharing, stock options, and bonuses. Some people would consider profit sharing, stock options and bonuses as forms of compensation. ) You might think of benefits as being tangible or intangible. The benefits listed previously are tangible benefits. Intangible benefits are less direct, for example, appreciation from a boss, likelihood for promotion, nice office, etc. People sometimes talk of fringe benefits, usually referring to tangible benefits, but sometimes meaning both kinds of benefits. You might also think of benefits as company-paid and employee-paid.

While the company usually pays for most types of benefits (holiday pay, vacation pay, etc. ), some benefits, such as medical insurance, are often paid, at least in part, by employees because of the high costs of medical insurance. (McNamara, Carter) The staff of the Employee and Labor Relations Department provides consulting and advisory support to the Human Resources departments of Partners and its affiliates as well as to individual supervisors and employees.

The department’s goal is to ensure fair and equal treatment of all employees with a view towards helping managers deal with issues before they become major problems according to Partners HealthCare. Not only must an organization see to it that employees’ rights are not violated, but it must also provide a safe and healthy working environment. (Mondy and Noe (1996) The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety states that Human resources professionals play an important role in ensuring employee health and safety, as they know the workplace, the employees and their job demands.

While human resources professionals are not expected to know the technical aspects of workplace health and safety, they should know when and how to use existing resources to respond to employee concerns. In many organizations, health and safety responsibilities are within the human resources department. In order to meet these responsibilities, human resources professionals must: (CCOHS) * Understand the health and safety responsibilities of employers, managers, supervisors and employees within the organization; Implement personnel management policies to ensure that everyone in the workplace is aware of his/her responsibilities; * Establish effective ways of meeting health and safety responsibilities; and

* Ensure that employees fulfill their health and safety responsibilities as outlined in the organizational policies and programs. This guide provides general guidelines for integrating workplace health and safety in human resources management practices which include: * Preventing work related injuries and illnesses; Fostering a workplace safety culture in which employees and their supervisors work together to ensure workplace safety; * Establishing administrative procedures that encourage employees to report unsafe conditions and unsafe practices to their supervisors without fear of being disciplined; * Developing appropriate hiring, training and performance appraisal practices; * Recruiting and retaining the best employees who care about their own well being and the well being of co-workers. Ensuring that the health and safety policies and procedures conform with the applicable occupational health and safety legislation and accepted best practices in similar organizations;

* Establishing procedures for enforcing company safety rules; * Helping reduce costs associated with losses due to absenteeism injuries, Workers’ Compensation, disability, and health care; Maintaining records of injuries, illnesses and workers’ compensation; * Coordinating first aid training and the provision of first aid to employees; providing advice to employees and the employer in matters of occupational health and safety. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety) Health problems recognized in the workplace can include the effects of smoking, alcohol and drug/substance abuse, AIDS, stress, and burnout. Through employee assistance programs (EAPs), employees with emotional difficulties are given “the same consideration and assistance” as those employees with physical illnesses (Mondy and Noe, 1996,) In addition to recognizing workplace hazards, organizations are responsible for tracking safety- and health-related issues and reporting those statistics to the appropriate sources.

Compensation (payment in the form of hourly wages or annual salaries) and benefits (insurance, pensions, vacation, modified workweek, sick days, stock options, etc. ) can be a catch-22 because an employee’s performance can be influenced by compensation and benefits, and vice versa. In the ideal situation, employees feel they are paid what they are worth, are rewarded with sufficient benefits, and receive some intrinsic satisfaction (good work environment, interesting work, etc. ).

Compensation should be legal and ethical, adequate, motivating, fair and equitable, cost-effective, and able to provide employment security (Cherrington, 1995). With all this being said Human Resource Managements must still abide by the EEO and Affirmative Action Regulation, when dealing with employee or possible employee. Many of us have heard of the terms Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action. But how many of us truly understand the principles of EEO and AA and why they exist. Perhaps there are those who think that EEO and AA mean the same. Equal Employment Opportunity prohibits discrimination against anyone.

It attempts to ensure that all applicants, males-females and all races have a fair opportunity in a hiring process, in competing for promotions, and equal access to training/professional development opportunities. As for Affirmative Action, it is a remedy to address past practices of discrimination. Affirmative Action was designed to level the playing field for females, individuals with disabilities and minorities. The minorities group includes Blacks, Hispanics, Asians and American Native Indians According to the State of Michigan Department of Human Services2013.

Affirmative Action does not mean that managers are expected to hire unqualified applicants. Additionally, Affirmative Action quotas are not automatic. The implementation of quotas must be ordered by a court of law. A true quota situation has rarely occurred across the United States. Affirmative Action is usually implemented as a voluntary goal oriented program. In all hiring situations, EEO principles should be applied to every vacancy being filled. Remember, while there is a difference between EEO and AA, they do have one thing in common: they are both about fairness! Michigan Department of Human Services2013) When deal with the Employee and Labor Relations they assists with general management regarding developing, maintaining and improving employee relationships via communication, performance management, processing grievances and/or disputes as well as interpreting and conveying University policies. Essentially, Employee and Labor Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving employees which stem out of or affect work situations.

In addition, Employee Relations recognizes employees for service contributed to the organization and provides assistance with professional growth. Finally, Employee and Labor Relations are responsible for negotiation and administration of the Collective Bargaining Agreements for the two employee Unions in the company. Managers, supervisors and staff experiencing difficulty in their work environment are encouraged to contact their designated Employee Relations Manager or Labor and Employee Relations Manager for further assistance and guidance.

Pace University promotes fostering positive professional involvement that contributes to satisfactory productivity, motivation and morale according to Pace University 2011. In this report I have reflect on The human resources department and how it seems to be the storehouse for maintaining the history of the organization; everything EEO and Affirmative Action, Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection, Human resources development, Compensation and benefits, Safety and Health, and Employee and labor relations. No company or organization can run successfully without a Human Resource Management Team in pace.