Ang Buhay Ng Hokkaido

March 21, 2019

Golden Papers

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Leader: Michelle Mausisa Members: Arjay Afan, AJ Bermudez, Renz Castro, (Silvia) MINHEE, Jeline Sarmiento, Daphne Galvez, Rosh Padua, Sam Jones, Joseph Valdez. Communicable diseases: a. Tuberculosis – is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains ofmycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. –

t is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air. Most infections are symptomatic and latent, but about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected. What causes tuberculosis? Tuberculosis is ultimately caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is spread from person to person through airborne particles. It is not guaranteed, though, that you will become infected with TB if you inhale the infected particles. Some people have strong enough immune systems that quickly destroy the bacteria once they enter the body.

Others will develop latent TB infection and will carry the bacteria but will not be contagious and will not present symptoms. Still others will become immediately sick and will also be contagious. What are the symptoms of tuberculosis? Most people who become infected with the bacteria that cause tuberculosis actually do not present symptoms of the disease. However, when symptoms are present, they include unexplained weight loss, tiredness, fatigue, shortness of breath, fever, night sweats, chills, and a loss of appetite.

Symptoms specific to the lungs include coughing that lasts for 3 or more weeks, coughing up blood, chest pain, and pain with breathing or coughing. Prevention: Protect your family and friends -If you have active TB, keep your germs to yourself. It generally takes a few weeks of treatment with TB medications before you’re not contagious anymore. Follow these tips to help keep your friends and family from getting sick: * Stay home. Don’t go to work or school or sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment for active tuberculosis. Ventilate the room. Tuberculosis germs spread more easily in small closed spaces where air doesn’t move. If it’s not too cold outdoors, open the windows and use a fan to blow indoor air outside. * Cover your mouth. Use a tissue to cover your mouth anytime you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away.

* Wear a mask. Wearing a surgical mask when you’re around other people during the first three weeks of treatment may help lessen the risk of transmission. b. Cholera Cholera is an infection in the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse, watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. What are the causes of Cholera? Cholera is a diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This species is not endemic to humans, and its presence in the human digestive system is not part of the natural life cycle of the bacteria.

Normally found in an estuary ecology, the Vibrio cholerae bacteria life cycle naturally shifts between various reservoir species such as small snails and crustaceans, free-floating planktonic forms and static forms resident in the silt and muck of the estuary. Vibrio cholera bacteria enter the human ecosystem through a variety of routes. The most common entry is through contaminated food or water. When humans eat seafood–in particular shellfish native to estuary environments such as oysters or crabs–and fail to cook them completely or even eat them raw, they can ingest the large amounts of bacteria necessary to cause a case of cholera.

Poorly cleaned vegetables irrigated by contaminated water sources are another common source. In situations where sanitation is severely challenged, such as in refugee camps or communities with highly limited water resources, a single affected victim can contaminate all water for an entire population. What are the symptoms of Cholera? A symptom is something the patient senses and describes, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor notice. For example, drowsiness may be a symptom while dilated pupils may be a sign. Most infections are not severe, with 75% of infected people not showing any symptoms.

Within 6 hours to 5 days of exposure, symptoms of cholera range from being mild or asymptomatic to severe disease, characterized by huge volumes of explosive watery diarrhea (sometimes called “rice water stools” because of the similarity of appearance to water that has been used to wash rice), vomiting, and leg cramps. Due to rapid loss of fluids up to 20 liters daily, severe dehydration and shock can occur in these individuals. Signs of dehydration include loss of skin plasticity, sunken eyes, fast heart beat, low blood pressure, and rapid weight loss.

Shock occurs as a result of collapse of the circulatory system. Prevention: If you’re traveling to cholera-endemic areas, your risk of contracting the disease is extremely low if you follow these precautions: * Wash hands with soap and water frequently, especially after using the toilet and before handling food. Rub soapy, wet hands together for at least 15 seconds before rinsing. If soap and water aren’t available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. * Drink only safe water, including bottled water or water you’ve boiled or disinfected yourself.

Use bottled water even to brush your teeth. Hot beverages are generally safe, as are canned or bottled drinks, but wipe the outside before you open them. * Eat food that’s completely cooked and hot and avoid street vendor food, if possible. If you do buy a meal from a street vendor, make sure it’s cooked in your presence and served hot. * Avoid sushi, as well as raw or improperly cooked fish and seafood of any kind. * Stick to fruits and vegetables that you can peel yourself, such as bananas, oranges and avocados.

Stay away from salads and fruits that can’t be peeled, such as grapes and berries. * Be wary of dairy foods, including ice cream, which is often contaminated and unpasteurized milk. Treatment: * Rehydration. The goal is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes using a simple rehydration solution, Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS). The ORS solution is available as a powder that can be reconstituted in boiled or bottled water. Without rehydration, approximately half the people with cholera die. With treatment, the number of fatalities drops to less than 1 percent. Intravenous fluids. During a cholera epidemic, most people can be helped by oral rehydration alone, but severely dehydrated people may also need intravenous fluids.

* Antibiotics. While antibiotics are not a necessary part of cholera treatment, some of these drugs may reduce both the amount and duration of cholera-related diarrhea. A single dose of doxycycline (Adoxa, Monodox) or azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) may be effective. * Zinc supplements. Research has shown that zinc may decrease and shorten the duration of diarrhea in children with cholera. c. Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, afacultative anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. It is characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membran on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. [3] A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. What Causes Diphtheria? Diphtheria is caused by a pathogenic (disease causing) bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae).

This bacterium multiplies rapidly spreading through the upper respiratory tract where it causes inflammation. In more serious cases C. iphtheriae produces a toxin which can enter the blood stream to involve the heart, brain and nerves. It is a contagious disease that can be contracted by: * Inhaling the aerosolized secretions of an infected person – air-borne droplets expelled from the body. Sneezing and coughing are the most frequent ways the infection is spread. * Direct contact with the secretions from the nose and throat of an infected person. * Direct contact with a skin ulcer of an infected person. * Possibly, but very rarely, through contaminated personal or household items. Risk Factors

Diphtheria is more apparent in: * Crowded, unsanitary environments. * People who don’t have immunity against the disease (vaccination. ) * Undernourished individuals. * Epidemic areas. What are The Symptoms of Diphtheria? Diphtheria has an incubation period of 2-5 days (symptoms will show 2-5 days after the bacteria infect a person), and in some cases up to 10 days. Onset is slow, after which the disease develops rapidly. Signs and symptoms are: * Sore throat. * Difficulty breathing. * Swollen neck glands. * Nasal discharge. * Pain when swallowing. * Weakness. * High temperature (fever).

Prevention: -Wash your hands frequently. -Avoid exposure to others who have a sore throat. -Avoid crowded areas during cold and flu season. -Do not smoke. -Avoid exposure to secondary smoke. -Keep vaccinations up to date. Treatment: -Diphtheria is a serious illness. Doctors treat it immediately and aggressively with these medications: * An antitoxin. After doctors confirm a preliminary diagnosis of diphtheria, the infected child or adult receives an antitoxin. The antitoxin, injected into a vein or muscle, neutralizes the diphtheria toxin already circulating in the body.

Before giving antitoxin, doctors may perform skin allergy tests to make sure that the infected person doesn’t have an allergy to the antitoxin. People who are allergic must first be desensitized to the antitoxin. Doctors accomplish this by initially giving small doses of the antitoxin and then gradually increasing the dosage. * Antibiotics. Diphtheria is also treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin. Antibiotics help kill bacteria in the body, clearing up infections.

Antibiotics reduce to just a few days the length of time that a person with diphtheria is contagious. . Typhoid Fever -Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi. What are the causes of Typhoid Fever? * It was caused by a virulent bacterium called Salmonella typhi. Although they’re related, S. typhi and the bacterium responsible for salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection, aren’t the same. Typhoid carriers Even after treatment with antibiotics, a small number of people who recover from typhoid fever continue to harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts or gallbladders, often for years.

These people, called chronic carriers, shed the bacteria in their feces and are capable of infecting others, although they no longer have signs or symptoms of the disease themselves. How to Prevent Typhoid Fever? -Vaccines Two vaccines are available. One is injected in a single dose about two weeks before exposure. One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other ay. Neither vaccine is 100 percent effective, and both require repeat immunizations as vaccine effectiveness diminishes over time. -Because the vaccine won’t provide complete protection, follow these guidelines when traveling to high-risk areas as well: * Wash your hands. Frequent hand-washing is the best way to control infection. Wash your hands thoroughly with hot, soapy water, especially before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. Carry an alcohol-based hand sanitizer for times when water isn’t available. * Avoid drinking untreated water.

Contaminated drinking water is a particular problem in areas where typhoid is endemic. For that reason, drink only bottled water or canned or bottled carbonated beverages, wine and beer. Carbonated bottled water is safer than uncarbonated bottled water is. Wipe the outside of all bottles and cans before you open them. Ask for drinks without ice. Use bottled water to brush your teeth, and try not to swallow water in the shower. * Avoid raw fruits and vegetables. Because raw produce may have been washed in unsafe water, avoid fruits and vegetables that you can’t peel, especially lettuce.

To be absolutely safe, you may want to avoid raw foods entirely. * Choose hot foods. Avoid food that’s stored or served at room temperature. Steaming hot foods are best. And although there’s no guarantee that meals served at the finest restaurants are safe, it’s best to avoid food from street vendors — it’s more likely to be contaminated. Prevent infecting others If you’re recovering from typhoid, these measures can help keep others safe: * Wash your hands often. This is the single most important thing you can do to keep from spreading the infection to others.

Use plenty of hot, soapy water and scrub thoroughly for at least 30 seconds, especially before eating and after using the toilet. * Clean household items daily. Clean toilets, door handles, telephone receivers and water taps at least once a day with a household cleaner and paper towels or disposable cloths. * Avoid handling food. Avoid preparing food for others until your doctor says you’re no longer contagious. If you work in the food service industry or a health care facility, you won’t be allowed to return to work until tests show that you’re no longer shedding typhoid bacteria. Keep personal items separate. Set aside towels, bed linen and utensils for your own use and wash them frequently in hot, soapy water. Heavily soiled items can be soaked first in disinfectant.

Treatments: Commonly prescribed antibiotics * Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). , doctors often prescribe this for nonpregnant adults. * Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for women who are pregnant and for children who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin. These drugs can cause side effects, and long-term use can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.