And graduate programs in world history proliferated, although the WHA is still predominantly an American phenomenon.  World History has often displaced Western Civilization in the required curriculum of American high schools and universities, and is supported by new textbooks with a world history approach. The World History Association publishes the Journal of World History quarterly since 1990.  The H-World discussion list serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.
The international Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations ISCSC approaches world history from the standpoint of comparative civilizations. Founded at a conference in 1961 in Salzburg, Austria, that was attended by Othmar Anderlie, Pitirim Sorokin, and Arnold Toynbee, this is an international association of scholars that publishes a journal, Comparative Civilization Review, and hosts an annual meeting in cities around the world. History Pre-modern The study of world history, as distinct from national history, has existed in many world cultures.
However, early forms of world history were not truly global, and were limited to only the regions known by historian. In Ancient China, Chinese world history, that of China and the surrounding people of East Asia, was based on the dynastic cycle articulated by Sima Qian in circa 100 BC. Sima Qian’s model is based on the Mandate of Heaven. Rulers rise when they united China, then are overthrown when a ruling dynasty became corrupt.  Each new dynasty begins virtuous and strong, but then decays, provoking the transfer of Heaven’s mandate to a new ruler.
The test of virtue in a new dynasty is success in being obeyed by China and neighboring barbarians. After 2000 years Sima Qian’s model still dominates scholarship, although the dynastic cycle is no longer used for modern Chinese history.  In Ancient Greece, Herodotus (5th century BC), as founder of Greek historiography. , presents insightful and lively discussions of the customs, geography, and history of Mediterranean peoples, particularly the Egyptians.
However, his great rival Thucydides promptly discarded Herodotus’s all-embracing approach to history, offering instead a more precise, sharply focused monograph, dealing not with vast empires over the centuries but with 27 years of war between Athens and Sparta. In Rome, the vast, patriotic history of Rome by Livy (59 BC-17 AD) approximated Herodotean inclusiveness; Polybius (c. 200-c. 118 BC) aspired to combine the logical rigor of Thucydides with the scope of Herodotus.  In Central Asia, The Secret History of Mongols is regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan.
The Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world. In the Middle East, Ala’iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226–1283) was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire entitled Ta’ rikh-i jahan-gusha (History of the World Conqueror).  The standard edition of Juvayni is published under the title Ta’ rikh-i jahan-gusha, ed. Mirza Muhammad Qazwini, 3 vol, Gibb Memorial Series 16 (Leiden and London, 1912–37). An English translation by John Andrew Boyle “The History of the World-Conqueror” was republished in 1997.
Rashid al-Din Fadhl-allah Hamadani (1247–1318), was a Persian physician of Jewish origin, polymathic writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language, often considered a landmark in intercultural historiography and a key document on the Ilkhanids (13th and 14th century).  His encyclopedic knowledge of a wide range of cultures from Mongolia to China to the Steppes of Central Eurasia to Persia, the Arab lands, and Europe, provide the most direct access to information on the late Mongol era.
His descriptions also highlight the manner in which the Mongol Empire and its emphasis on trade resulted in an atmosphere of cultural and religious exchange and intellectual ferment, resulting in the transmission of a host of ideas from East to West and vice versa. One Arab scholar, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1409) broke with traditionalism and offered a model of historical change in Muqaddimah, an exposition of the methodology of scientific history.
Ibn Khaldun focused on the reasons for the rise and fall of civilization, arguing that the causes of change are to be sought in the economic and social structure of society. His work was largely ignored in the Muslim world.  Otherwise the Muslim, Chinese and Indian intellectuals held fast to a religious traditionalism, leaving them unprepared to advise national leaders on how to confront the European intrusion into Asia after 1500. Early modern During the Renaissance in Europe, history was written about states or nations.
The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history (historia). Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) in Italy wrote Scienza nuova seconda (The New Science) in 1725, which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds. He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature changes over time.
Each epoch should be seen as a whole in which all aspects of culture—art, religion, philosophy, politics, and economics—are interrelated (a point developed later by Oswald Spengler). Vico showed that myth, poetry, and art are entry points to discovering the true spirit of a culture. Vico outlined a conception of historical development in which great cultures, like Rome, undergo cycles of growth and decline. His ideas were out of fashion during the Enlightenment, but influenced the Romantic historians after 1800.
A major theoretical foundation for world history was given by German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, who saw the modern Prussian state as the highest stage of world development. Contemporary World history became a popular genre in the 20th century with universal history. In the 1920s several best-sellers dealt with the history of the world, including surveys The Story of Mankind (1921) by Hendrik Willem van Loon and The Outline of History (1918) by H. G. Wells. Influential writers who have reached wide audiences include H.
G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Christopher Dawson, and Lewis Mumford. Scholars working the field include Eric Voegelin, William H. McNeill and Michael Mann.  Spengler’s Decline of the West (2 vol 1919–1922) compared nine organic cultures: Egyptian (3400 BC-1200 BC), Indian (1500 BC-1100 BC), Chinese (1300 BC-AD 200), Classical (1100 BC-400 BC), Byzantine (AD 300–1100), Aztec (AD 1300–1500), Arabian (AD 300–1250), Mayan (AD 600–960), and Western (AD 900–1900).
His book was a smashing success among intellectuals worldwide as it predicted the disintegration of European and American civilization after a violent “age of Caesarism,” arguing by detailed analogies with other civilizations. It deepened the post-World War I pessimism in Europe, and was warmly received by intellectuals in China, India and Latin America who hoped his predictions of the collapse of European empires would soon come true.  In 1936–1954, Toynbee’s ten-volume A Study of History came out in three separate installments.
He followed Spengler in taking a comparative topical approach to independent civilizations. Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their origin, growth, and decay. Toynbee rejected Spengler’s biological model of civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000 years. Like Sima Qian, Toynbee explained decline as due to their moral failure. Many readers rejoiced in his implication (in vols. 1–6) that only a return to some form of Catholicism could halt the breakdown of western civilization which began with the Reformation.
Volumes 7–10, published in 1954, abandoned the religious message, and his popular audience slipped away, while scholars gleefully picked apart his mistakes. , McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1965) to improve upon Toynbee by showing how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from the very beginning of their history, borrowing critical skills from one another, and thus precipitating still further change as adjustment between traditional old and borrowed new knowledge and practice became necessary.
McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of peoples across the globe. Such interactions have become both more numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times. Before about 1500, the network of communication between cultures was that of Eurasia. The term for these areas of interaction differ from one world historian to another and include world-system and ecumene. Whatever it is called, the importance of these intercultural contacts has begun to be recognized by many scholars.  History Education edit]United States In college curricula of the United States, world history became a popular replacement for courses on Western Civilization, beginning in the 1970s. Professors Patrick Manning, previously of Northeastern University and now at the University of Pittsburgh’s World History Center; and Ross E. Dunn at San Diego State are leaders in promoting innovative teaching methods.  Recent themes In recent years, the relationship between African and world history has shifted rapidly from one of antipathy to one of engagement and synthesis.
Reynolds (2007) surveys the relationship between African and world histories, with an emphasis on the tension between the area studies paradigm and the growing world-history emphasis on connections and exchange across regional boundaries. A closer examination of recent exchanges and debates over the merits of this exchange is also featured. Reynolds sees the relationship between African and world history as a measure of the changing nature of historical inquiry over the past century.  Histories have traditionally been written from the perspective of national governments or of geographically based communities.
However, it is also possible to see world history as the story of a single human civilization developing new institutions and forms of expression over successive periods of time. World history can thus be a “creation story” to tell how the world of human society developed. In this mode, the story would include not only political and diplomatic history but also events relating to religion, commerce, education, and entertainment. Technologies of communication would have an important role in this history.