Category: Golden Papers


Adult Crown Recement


Before the dentist can carry out any treatments, I have to prepare the surgery. I put on my gloves and wipe down the spittoon, light, chair and work surfaces with hard surface disinfectant wipes. This is done to help prevent cross contamination. I get the patients records up on the computer and check the patient’s record and medical history. I do this to make sure the patient is not allergic to any medications that will be used in the re-cementing of the crown. I would also make available any radiographs. I make are that the patient has a signed consent form.

Dental floss – clearing the interdental between teeth •excavator – cleaning old cement •hand scalar – removing excess cement I wash my hands and then call the patient into the surgery. Once the patient is sat in the chair, I put on the bib and safety glasses on the patient. I put on my own safety glasses, mask and gloves. he dentist asked to see the detached crown and looks in the patients mouth where crown has come from, this is to assess if the crown can be re –cemented back in. on this occasion the crown can be re-cemented in. the dentists uses the excavator to remove the old cement from the patients tooth and inside the crown. This is to ensure that the crown fits correctly back in on to the tooth. The dentist asks me to mix two scoops of the cement. When I have mixed the cement, I hand it to the dentist avoiding passing it over the patients face.

The dentist puts the cement into the crown and fixes it back into positions. I put the used leaf of the mixing pad in the dirty zone and wipe the mixing spatula with a hard disinfection wipe. The helps to eliminate the need for manual scrubbing. When the cement is set, the dentist removes the excess cement with a hand scalar. The patient is asked to rinse there mouth and they are given instruction not to eat anything for an hour until the cement is complete set. Now the treatment is complete the electronic record is updated. I take off the patients bib and safety glasses and the patient is free to leave.

I collect the dirty instruments and place them in the dirty zone. The instruments are then put into a plastic box, ready to be taken to the sterilisation room. I take off my gloves and put a clean pair on for decontaminating the surgery. I use hard surface disinfectant wipes to wipe down the chair, work surfaces, light safety glasses, bib and the cement bottle. I use hard surface disinfectant spray and a paper towel to clean down the spittoon. The gloves, masks, paper towel, plastic cup and mixing pad leaf are discarded in the clinical waste bin. I finally wash my hands again.

Fiction and Hunger Games


Many writers use a country setting to establish values within a work of literature. For example, the country may be a place of virtue and peace or one of primitivism and ignorance. The Golden Country in 1984 and the Appalachian setting of District 12 in The Hunger Games are important settings. Both Orwell and Collins shape the characters of Winston and Katniss with their connections to these settings.

Write an essay in which you compare-contrast how the country setting in each work functions to give us clues to the two main characters. In some works of literature, a character who appears briefly, or does not appear at all, is a significant presence. Choose a character from 1984 and from The Hunger Games and write an essay in which you compare-contrast how such a character functions in the novels. You may wish to discuss how the character in each affects action, theme or the development of other characters.

A symbol is an object, action, or event that represents something or that creates a range of associations beyond itself. In literary events a symbol can express an idea that should not be overlooked. Focusing on the glass paperweight in 1984 and the gold pin in The Hunger Games, write an essay in which you compare-contrast how that symbol functions in the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole. Consider how the authors introduce the symbols in their works and how that symbol develops or grows in meaning.

Perspectives on Student Suspensions


Despite its widespread use, empirical research suggests that suspension is ineffective, punitive, and a predictor of further social problems, such as substance abuse and crime. The proposed study will use qualitative methods to explore the beliefs of teachers and administrators regarding the rationale for and the impact of suspension in Western Australian secondary schools. Case studies will be conducted on three schools, two of which are currently trialing different programs to assist in both reducing suspensions and making them more effective.

The third school will be selected for its more traditional ways of dealing with students, and will have been identified by District Education Office staff as a school with a high suspension rate. One-on-one interviews will be conducted with teachers from different Learning Areas at each school, pastoral care staff, the Deputy Principal in charge of Student Services, and the Principal. After analysis of the data, the themes will be presented to the participants in focus groups for them to verify or refute.

It is hoped that by examining the reasons why school staff suspend students, viable alternatives and suggestions to improve practice may be created that are more well-supported by school staff. Schools have increasingly reported concerns with disruptive behaviour in class (Dettman, 1972; White, Algozzine, Audette, Marr and Ellis, 2001; Metzler, Biglan, Rusby & Sprague, 2001; Mukuria, 2002; Uchitelle, Bartz & Hillman, 1989). Disruptive behaviour can function as a major impediment to classroom learning (Slee, 1988).

In recent times, safety, violence, drugs and weapon use have been uppermost in the problems schools face (White, 2002; Skiba, 2000; Mendez, Knoff & Ferron, 2002). Events such as the shooting of staff and students by students in the United States (US), coupled with the media presenting incidences of school violence on a regular basis (Vavrus & Cole, 2002; Schiraldi & Ziedenberg, 2001; Christie, Petrie & Christie, 1999), have contributed to schools feeling the need to increase the severity and intensity of their disciplinary practices (Fields, 2002).

In countries such as the US, zero tolerance policies have been adopted in efforts to decrease the prevalence of severe behaviour problems within schools (Skiba, 2000: Skiba & Peterson, 1999; Sughrue, 2003). In the US, mandatory suspension – and, in some cases, expulsion – may be imposed for behaviours such as bringing a weapon to school and gang-related activity (Skiba & Peterson, 1999). In some states, mandatory suspension has also been implemented for students who show open, ongoing defiance and continued disorderly or disruptive conduct (Sughrue, 2003).

Suspension has also been used as a consequence for behaviours such as truancy, lateness, disrespect and non-compliance (Skiba, 2000). The abolition of corporal punishment has increased the use of suspension as part of standard disciplinary practice and has been the cause of much debate among educationalists, human-rights activists, parents, and the general community (Parker-Jenkins, 1999; Slee. 1992; Seymour, 1992; Johnson, 1992; Hocking & Murphy, 1992).

In Australia, state educators have been encouraged to give more weight to suspension as a behaviour management strategy (Beazley, 1984; Louden, 1985). Perhaps as a consequence, suspension has now become a method of choice in dealing with disruptive behaviour (Hyde, 1992), and there has been a steady increase in the use of suspension for both severe and lesser behaviours (Slee, 1992; Schiraldi & Ziedenberg, 2001; Atkins, et al. , 2002). Despite its increasing popularity, suspension is a moderate to strong predictor of students’ later disengagement with schooling (Skiba & Peterson, 1999).

Students who disengage from the school through suspension have been shown to be more likely to become involved in substance abuse and other activities that could lead to juvenile offending (Kilpatrick, 1998). There have also been questions as to the efficacy of suspension in producing behaviour change (Costenbader & Markson, 1998; Partington, 2001; Schiraldi & Ziedenberg, 2001; Kilpatrick, 1998; Atkins, et al. , 2002; Bock, Tapscott & Savner, 1998; Vavrus & Cole, 2002).

Nonetheless, suspension continues to be used as a sanction for inappropriate behaviour throughout schools in the US, the United Kingdom (UK), and in all states of Australia, including Western Australia (WA). By examining the perspectives of teachers and school administrators on suspension, this study aims to examine why suspension continues to be used in schools despite the relative lack of evidence supporting its efficacy as a behaviour management strategy.

Legal Issue-Enron


However, with few exceptions, business ethicists are usually less interested in the foundations of ethics (meta-ethics) or by the principles of justification ethical principles: they show themselves more concerned with practical issues, and any obligation specific practice that may apply to the activity and the relationship to economic (Swartz, 2004). Discussion and Analysis Government regulators have been quite willing to act as enforcer for the reformers. In the process, they have criminalized common business practices and created crimes of full disclosure out of whole cloth where there had been none before.

This activity made for great theater and lurid headlines that furthered the political ambitions of prosecutors, but it was certainly not at all helpful to the economy. Corporate governance reforms affect every aspect of life in America when they impose unneeded restrictions on management, and the full disclosure system is the most burdensome of all. SEC regulations govern every aspect of securities trading, from the initial offering and the underwriting process to the secondary markets. The “Enron Scandal” is already a landmark in the history of capitalism that may significantly influence its necessary transformation.

The current capitalism “has been a mother,” which has escaped all the regulations and controls that kept him within an ethical context. Business Ethics, Applied Ethics The trend in recent decades has been to integrate these concepts ever within companies. Be prescriptive, legislating (eg, through the sanction of insider trading, bribes, accounting rules, executive compensation, discrimination, respect for privacy, the sanction of barriers to competition etc.. ). The question that arises is that Law and business ethics are they compatible?

However, ethics and law remain to distinguish, since the law seeks to maintain order, where ethics seeks only to indicate a course of conduct (soft law) that economic actors should adopt. O’Fallo (2005) explains this difference by showing that no law can be both judge and party, while ethics refers to the personal views and thus the judgment of consciousness leads to a reparability between the rule moral and appreciation. Background Enron was one of the largest companies U. S. by its capitalization market.

In addition to its own activities in the natural gas, this Texan company had set up a system of brokerage by which she bought and sold electricity, including the network of current distributors of the State of California, communication. In December 2001, it was bankrupt because of its losses from speculative trading on the electricity market, which had been disguised as profits via accounting manipulation. This failure resulted in its wake of Arthur Andersen, which audit it accounts. The Reality Before Enron, Corp Fin had a goal of reviewing each company’s annual report at least once every three years.

That goal was not met. Only 53 percent of public companies filing with the SEC had their annual reports reviewed in the three years preceding Enron’s collapse. Interestingly, Corp Fin did review the annual reports filed by Enron in 1991, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The division also conducted full reviews of Enron’s proxy statements in 1993 and 1994, as well as documents submitted for a merger and acquisition of some subsidiaries in 1996 and 1997. Corp Fin conducted full reviews of two securities offerings by Enron in 1992 and 1998 and undertook partial reviews on particular issues of seven other Enron offerings.

No serious problems were revealed in any of those examinations (Dharan, 2004). The Enron Code of Ethics When the accounting scandals of the last decade hit, Enron became the prime target, not only for their other-worldly abuse and unethical conduct but because of the fact that their code of ethics was so contradictory to their actions. Fraud and Manipulation Internally, Enron created more than 3,000 offshore companies. The primary goal of these companies was to enable investors to co-finance infrastructure long to return through securitization.

These companies also allowed outsourcing certain significant risks of the parent company to avoid the compromising. Enron used widely this type of non-consolidated companies for these purposes and later out of assets or liabilities of the balance sheet. These companies, whose headquarters were located in the Cayman Islands, the Bermuda or the Bahamas, and the results made more “presentable”. However, brief information on these subsidiaries was specified in notes at the bottom of page of financial information documents. The company simultaneously pursued a policy of aggressive communication.

Thus, its charismatic chairman Kenneth Lay sent a letter to employees announcing that he believed the share price gain 800% before the year 2010. Many Enron executives were charged with a variety of positions and were subsequently sentenced to prison. The auditor of Enron, Arthur Andersen was found guilty in U. S. District Court, but by the time the Supreme Court of the United States reversed the judgment, the company had lost most of its customers and had closed. In particular, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act expanded the impact by destroying, altering or fabricating records in federal investigations or trying to defraud the shareholders.

The law also increased the liability of accounting firms to remain neutral and independent from their clients (O’Fallo, 2005). Enron Exposed another Problem Another problem that needs to be identified is that the information it filed with the SEC was stale. Although the Enron financial reports were raising some eyebrows on Wall Street as a result of its rapid growth, changes in its business operations, and widespread use of special purpose entities, no one at the SEC was concerned. The SEC had planned to review Enron’s 2001 annual report after concerns over its accounting were raised in the press, but

Enron’s bankruptcy mooted the issue, and no report for that period was ever filed by Enron. After Enron’s failure, Sarbanes-Oxley required the SEC to review the financial statements of all public companies at least every three years, one-third each year. The SEC was able to conduct a cursory review of only 23 percent of filings in 2003 and had trouble finding staff to do more, filling less than a third of its vacancies in the first half of fiscal 2004. A Government Accounting Office report also found that the SEC was lagging behind in computer technology to aid in its mission. Auditor Liability

As noted, the SEC and the Justice Department have broad powers to investigate that far exceed those of the auditors, but SEC and Justice Department investigations, for even a limited reporting period, take years and the resulting prosecution even more years. A case in point is Enron. Even after the disclosure of its problems, the government with all its powers took years to indict Enron’s top executives, using some strong-arm tactics that might be abhorrent to the rest of the civilized world. Even then, no senior executive’s trial was set to commence until well over four years after Enron’s collapse (Swartz, 2004).

Those trials will take months to conclude with no assurance of success. In contrast, Arthur Andersen had only a few months to review those same figures and was limited to a few cursory tests for verifying data. Certain question arises because of the Enron scandal, which can be discussed in the project: Can investors recover the credibility? The foreign firms and U. S firms are listed in the U. S stock exchanges which needs for demonstrating that they have eradicate all the off-books accounts that has been distorting the public’s understanding for the financial health of the company.

Moreover, each and every organization needs to demonstrate that the board of director is vigilant and vigorous and also their procedure will lead to enable them for uncovering any behaviour that is questionable for the company (O’Fallo, 2005). What’s the impact of Enron scandal on U. S Economy? During 2000 and 2001 and the United States experienced its first failure: electronic commerce in what is known as the domain “dot com”, large virtual companies that mined or produced anything, without even having sold only local or sellers. Now what happened at Enron can be extended, which would experience a new collapse.

If such, the beneficiary will be the European Community with stronger economic basis, with a euro that now competes with the dollar and a more subtle system of protectionism. Enron has clearly done damages for the U. S economy, however, it would not hold up the recovery from the present recession. It is a fact that the fundamental health for the U. S economy is strong enough and it’s getting stronger. Majority of the individuals are aware of the fact that the new economy companies will face a depress stock prices for some time, however they will recover in the end as they demonstrate that they are prepared for preventing Enron-like behaviour.

Conclusion In the end, one can conclude by saying that the Enron case is a perverse system model, which has contributed significantly to the large-scale corruption, and has created unemployment, which has lost confidence in the “police power” of National state for the good of all, who has broken all ethical principles, he has left on the street to tens of thousands of people, which has bankrupted thousands of companies. It has misused the money from investors, which has squandered the savings of their employees and therefore should be considered to cause massive evil.

The highly developed world today lives sustained global growth euphoria at the cost of mass unemployment and its consequences of hunger and violence. Capitalist government’s today act in practice as gendarmes of large concentrations of capital, structured and amorphous giant corporations to “go in vice” could not be controlled either by states or by its owners: the shareholders. In practice, large concentrations are those that dictate what must be done each time in a less dissimilate, officials on duty.

The Enron case must be studied thoroughly because it is a typical example of such high concentrations, perhaps one of the largest and most aggressive.

Explain the Function of Assessemnt and Learning and Development


Assessment is a way of finding out what learning has taken place. It enables the assessor to check what level of knowledge, skills and competency the candidate has throughout the qualification or programme. It starts with the assessor sitting down with the candidate at the beginning and creating an assessment plan for each stage of the candidate’s chosen course. 1. 2 Define the key concepts and principles of assessment.

The concepts of assessment throughout the assessment process can include * Accountability: the assessor has accountability to the learner and the organisation to ensure they are carrying out their role correctly. They may also have accountability to the learner’s employer or to an awarding organisation. * Following the assessment strategy for your role to ensure you are carrying out your role correctly and working towards the required qualification. * Benchmarking: This involves comparing what is accepted standard for a particular subject against the current position of the learner’s performance.

If the learner doesn’t achieve the benchmark an evaluation will take place to plan for improvements. * Evaluation of the assessment process should always take place to inform current and future practice. * Types of assessment include initial assessment at the beginning of the course to identify the learners starting point, formative assessment is ongoing and summative is at the end. * Internal assessments can be marked by the assessor whilst external assessment is usually marked by an awarding organisation.

Progression: this should be taken into account when assessing learners, what they are going to do next. This should always be discussed with the learner to ensure they are capable of achieving their aim. * Transparency; The assessor will need to ensure that everyone is involved in the assessment process understands what is expected. The assessor will need to liaise with the learner’s organisation. The principles of assessment are rules and functions that are based on the concepts, how the assessment process is put into place. Key principles include: Continuing professional development – keeping up to date with current knowledge and competency.

Equality and diversity – ensuring all assessments activities promote equality, inclusion and diversity and represent all aspects of society. * Ethics- ensure the assessment process is honest and moral and ensures confidentiality and integrity is taken into account. * Fairness- activities should be fit for purpose, and planning, decisions and feed- back fair. * Health and safety- ensuring this is taken into account during the whole assessment process and risk assessments carried out when necessary. Motivation- encourages and supports the learner to reach their full potential at a level that is achievable to them. * Quality assurance – an integrated process ensuring assessments decisions meet the qualification standards, and assessors are carrying out their role correctly.

Star Trek’s Impact on American Society


For many people, nothing is quite as captivating as good television. A good show has a lot of power, and there have been many good shows. In the history of television, however, few shows have been quite as influential as the Star Trek series were. Star Trek has something for everyone: accurate science for sci fi nerds, great plots and actors for traditional T. V. lovers, and hopeful ideas of a future with world peace and no poverty for optimists. However, one part of Star Trek that appeals to almost all who watch the show is the mindset of equality for all, no matter gender, race, or alien species.

Star Trek’s humanistic social commentary inspired those who watched it, especially subjugated groups, and as a result, the mentality that was developed was one of hope and breaking barriers, which in turn led to a progression in America’s societal mentality. This was able to occur because the humanistic values that are championed by Star Trek are the natural tendencies of human nature. Star Trek simpply brought these values to the forefront of the American mind.

The Star Trek franchise began around the same time as two very important equal rights political movements of the 60’s: the women’s rights movement and the civil rights movement. 966, the year in which Star Trek: The Original Series (TOS) first aired, was politically and socially a very chaotic time. The women’s rights movement was beginning to build momentum, and many reforms were starting to actualize, including the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Griswold v Connecticut Supreme Court case in 1965 (the right to use contraceptives), the formation of NOW (National Organization for Women) in 1966, and the extension of affirmative action to include women in 1967.

At a time when a woman holding a job outside of being a housewife or some sort of secretary was unheard of, actresses were expected to play these roles, and these roles alone. Similar restrictions and reforms had to be overcome by African Americans with the Civil Rights Movement. From the Civil Rights Act (banned discrimination in employment) and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (to investigate claims of disregard for the above act) in 1964, to affirmative action in 1965, African Americans were steadily reforming their subpar status, just like the women of the Women’s Rights Movement.

But up until now, blacks were hardly ever on television; they were featured even less than women. For most minority groups and for women, this all changed with Star Trek. The Star Trek franchise has been a prominent part of American society for a very long time, and has had the time to build up to the large franchise that it is. TOS first aired in September of 1966. Although it only ran for three years, it broke a lot of barriers: the first interracial kiss on television, and the first black actress to play in an authoritative position. What’s more significant is how popular Star Trek became.

Throughout the 70’s baby boomers and their parents watched reruns on TV; apparently, the popularity was great enough to have Paramount Pictures create a movie in 1979. In 1982, the second and most popular movie, according to box office reviews, The Wrath Of Khan came out, and in 1984, The Search For Spock. TOS movies continued being made, on average, every two years until 1991 for a total of six, but in the meantime, a new TV series had started. Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG) ended up being such a hit that it continued for 8 years, 7 seasons, from 1987-1994.

TNG was the foundation for the next four movies that concluded with Nemesis, in 2002. Voyager, Deep Space Nine, and Enterprise, the three other series, were not quite as popular, but the franchise and even the less popular series had a huge fanbase. The myriad of books, conventions, and paraphernalia that went along with the series, from action figures, to fake phasers, showed what a hold the show had over people. This was, by no means, what creator Gene Roddenberry had originally expected. Roddenberry had hoped for a good fanbase, but no one expects a religious following for a show illustrating humanist ideals.

But that was exactly what Roddenberry got with, what was in essence, his social commentary. The Star Trek franchise is famous for its social commentary in the form of motifs in the episodes. When TOS first aired in 1966, a slew of social reform movements were starting up. From the the women’s rights movements, to the continued forcefulness of the civil rights movement, the 1960’s was, socially, a very tumultuous and exciting time. A clear product of its given time, the Star Trek franchise is unique in T. V. in the extent of its commentary over an extended period of social changes.

Star Trek is also unique in the plethora of different viewer responses to and opinions of the show’s true message. According to creator Gene Roddenberry, the main theme of the show is meant to be a message of humanity as a result of our progression forward as a race,and equality as a result of humanity. Roddenberry was a humanist who wanted to get his point across using the show. He said that “ I tend to think in the future it won’t seem at all strange that women are treated as the equals of men. I remember when NBC said to me, “How many women do you have on the ship? They thought that we certainly couldn’t have a ship’s complement that was half men and half women… We argued, and finally I agreed with NBC that I would make the ship one-third women — thinking to myself, with a chuckle, that one-third of a crew complement of healthy women could certainly handle the men anyway. It did not seem strange to me that I would use different races on the ship…

I knew what proportion of people and races the world population consisted of. I had been in the Air Force and had traveled to foreign countries. Obviously, these people handled themselves mentally as well as everyone else… y parents never taught me that one race or color was at all superior. I remember in school seeking out Chinese students and Mexican students because the idea of different cultures fascinated me. So, having not been taught that there is a pecking order people, a superiority of race or culture, it was natural that my writing went that way. ”# Roddenbery not only considered himself a humanist and an advocate of equal rights, but also an example of a man of future ideals. His ideas about humanity and its nature of equality were a part of the attraction of the show.

The Star Trek franchise lends the concept of humanity a big role in the show: not only is the concept to do the job of bringing us back in touch with our humanity, but it is also meant to show us the equality that is inherently human. The Star Trek franchise very purposefully made this the underlying theme of the show; at a time when a majority of the population was fighting for equal rights, blatant, repetitive dialogue combined with the creator’s quotes of no individual life being worth any less can hardly be taken in any way other than a direct commentary.

But as a result of the commenting quality of this show, further responses, reactions, and interpretations of the show, of course, arose. # Even among fans, for a majority a dichotomy developed of opinions of the show’s true message. While most everyone agrees on the intended message of equality, some wonder whether the show’s true colors shine through with certain actions and choices. At a time when both women and African Americans were fighting for certain rights, a female African American playing Lt. Uhura, the bridge communications officer, certainly seems to be a decision with a message of equality; Professor Daniel L.

Bernardi, however, does not agree. According to Bernardi the “white”# Captain Kirk of TOS was first, the most important, and the diverse crew members always came second, especially characters like Lt. Uhura and the Asian Commander Sulu, who received minimal dialogue, and appeared in far fewer episodes than the rest of the white bridge crew. In TNG, he claims, despite the “multicultural makeup”#, racist beliefs still shone through in members like Lt. Commander Worf, who was the antithesis of the “white”#, controlled, diplomatic Captain Picard.

Although intelligent, Worf was a member of the Klingon race, a race that was very tribal and warlike, in spite of the fact that they were technologically advanced; they also “happened”# to have the same skin tone as and were played exclusively by African Americans, which is, in Bernardi’s opinion, a clearer message than the plotlines themselves. Bernardi believes the show’s true intentions come through quite strongly, and whether or not they are said explicitly, traditional messages of gender and race come through forcefully. Bernardi and similar scholars, are not, however, the only commentators on the series. While the argument for an unequal Star Trek world is possible, the arguments for a progressive Star Trek world are much stronger.

Many of the pro-equality analysts do concede to the possible presence of racism, however, they reason that the ideas that are clearly communicated through the plots overshadow the racism that will of course exist in a show that started in the 1960’s. In fact, the racism is considered to be a necessity; to communicate to an audience with one belief, one cannot only share one’s own dissenting view, rather one must recognize the disagreement and meet those disagreeing halfway.

In Professor Anne Cranny-Francis’s review of Jean Lorrah’s Star Trek novels, she finds Lorrah maintains that although it is, at first glance, a sexist series, a humanity of full equality is what the Star Trek franchise espouses, and the patriarchy that appears dominant is the antithesis of the humanity that is the foundation of the show. Although the traditional stereotypes are present, Francis insists they are against the very basis of the series and, as a result, are only an unfortunate necessity. Francis is, indeed, correct.

Although she acknowledges counter-arguments such as Bernardi’s, she also has an awareness of the time period, and realize that the progressiveness is relative to the time period. Because the airing period of the original show was the late 1960’s, having an African American female on the bridge was progressive. African American women had never really had a commanding role on mainstream television before Nichelle Nichols opened up the playing field. And Lt. Uhura was of course not the only “diverse” crew member.

The fact of the Star Trek franchise’s progressiveness is further supported by the hold the Star Trek franchise has over people, and the resulting change in mindset for many, whether they were minorities or not. # Throughout history, media has played a huge role in public perception of current events, and the Star Trek franchise is no exception. According to the US Centennial of Flight Commission (USCFC), the Star Trek series are some of the most culturally influential shows of all time.

Indications of the show’s popularity include the naming of the first Space Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise or the only presence of a fictional artifact, the original Enterprise model used for filming, in a non-fictional area of the Smithsonian. But the USCFC claims on the testimony of women there were also more discrete, though not hidden, influences. Many women said they were very positively influenced by seeing women on the Enterprise working as scientists, doctors, and in other esteemed positions beside their male counterparts. A great deal of scientists and engineers were inspired to go into science because of the show.

Whoopi Goldberg believed in her abilities to be an African American “actress with a real role” when she saw Lt. Uhura on the bridge, and Mae Jemison, the first African-American woman to fly in space, said she was motivated by the show’s positive image of powerful women. Those listed above are some of the people influenced from the United States, let alone the nameless thousands who did not receive inspiration because they were members of subjugated groups, but rather, because they saw that every human being deserves equality.

The Star Trek franchise reached, and continues to reach, a wide spectrum of people, of all races, colors, and creeds. The ideas of equality and progression did not reach deaf ears, and neither did they reach indolent hands. # Many who were inspired by the Star Trek franchise chose to take action, in some form or another, to fight for the progressive world that the Star Trek franchise depicted. Those inspired by Star Trek, whether men, women, black, white, or of any other gender or race, did not sit idly with that inspiration.

In Star Trek: Visions of Law and Justice, Doctors Robert Chaires and Bradley Chilton not only lay out the reasons the Star Trek “phenomenon” has developed into what it has, but also how it has influenced the American legal system through influencing the American attitude. According to the authors, watching the Star Trek series triggers in many what is called the Quixote Complex, in the sense that the watcher gets a “sometimes irrational desire to see things not as they are, but as they could be if we humans were just a little bit better”(266)#.

The authors do not argue that the Star Trek franchise is the sole cause for the sensitizing of society to certain issues, but rather, the largest and most widespread vehicle for delivering the message. These men argue that the Star Trek franchise has not only sensitized society to these issues, but also have presented possible utopian ideals, ideals that people are sure not to immediately condemn and ideals that people can use as a model. This utopian option has spurred people to act, to fight for what they believe is good and true, even if they are not fighting directly for themselves.

Whether they protested, wrote letters, taught others, or even simply gave their children this model, these people fought for a future that was better; that future, according to them, was like the world of Star Trek. According to Chaires and Chilton, although we cannot predict what America would have been like without them, we can predict that the depth and breadth of the reform we have today in regards to equality would not exist. # The question now becomes “why”? The mentality Star Trek espouses and teaches has been accepted and influential because of the fundamentality the ideas hold within human nature.

Francis, in her novel separate from Lorrah’s, argues that gender, for example (but differences between people in general), in the sense that we perceive them, are totally human constructs. They are created not by birth but rather, by choice. Americans, and really all humans, have developed this societal construct that categorize and stereotype people into male/female, white/black, when really, it is only our own constructs that truly differentiate people outside of physical differences. Francis also argues that we are constantly progressing towards further equality, or at least trying to, because that is our nature.

In proving her thesis, and by saying that in our human nature we are equal, Francis really proves the converse, that it is against human nature to be unequal. Star Trek is a proponent of humanistic values, meaning it is working with human nature by working towards the same ideals; this also means Star Trek’s values became very adaptable, and simply need to be shown to the audience to be understood and eventually accepted. Star Trek’s ideals of equality have become a very influential part of American society as a result of the nature of humanity. #

Star Trek’s humanistic values have had a very influential role on American society. The show has been able to inspire subjugated groups because of the nature of the values of equality that the show promotes; that is, the human nature. The values Star Trek upholds are in line with human nature, ergo, they resonate with the people and are adopted into practice because Star Trek has boldly gone where no show has gone before.

Does Your Degree Affect Your Future Job?


Everyone sets goals for themselves in order to attain the most important goal of all: to get somewhere in society. Many people believe the only way to get anywhere is to have a good job and to earn a lot of money from it. Nowadays, higher education is becoming a desirable quality employers like to see on their future employees’ applications. How much value does your degree hold in the eyes of your future boss? Opinions of the value of higher education vary from person to person. Personally, I believe a college degree means more to businesses than just having made it through general education.

Mike Rose tells us that “…for [Uncle] Joe the shop floor provided what school did not; it was like schooling, he said, a place where you’re constantly learning,”(Rose 248). Rose goes on to say that there are many things his uncle and mother learned from their jobs that they didn’t need school for. His uncle, after years on the line, was promoted to a managerial position without any education other than high school. Joe learned how to be a good manager through his own experience as a line worker, knowing what employees wanted and needed to do the best job possible.

Joe did not need any more education than what he already had so why is a high school diploma becoming a less important qualification in today’s society? “A good way to make sure you always can find work is to be among the best at what you do,” (Murray 222). Having a certification or degree in some form of higher education is often a deciding factor when determining who is most eligible for a position throughout businesses. Our generation is all about getting as far as you can in your education and now that most jobs require some college schooling it is nearly impossible to “skip out” on continuing into college.

Jobs seem to be more demanding than they used to be because every company want the best people to make them look as good to the public as they can. Employers seek people who have some sort of degree because it means more in terms of what you can provide for the company. Professor Hegeman states “I do believe that earning a college degree in a major that requires significant effort does improve a new graduates’ chances of being hired, regardless of the job,”(Hegeman) Mr. Purtle agrees by saying “[A higher education] shows employers motivation to do the job, and it shows you really want to get somewhere in the world.

It means that you wanted a higher education enough to earn it, so you will earn your place in the job as well,”(Purtle). Most managers want someone for most positions who have some sort of degree because it doesn’t just mean that you know your basic skills. Employees want to know you have a broader range of skills that you could use in the work place. While Hegeman thinks that “…the quality of education (in terms of rigor) at 4-year institutions is significantly better than that provided by community colleges,”(Hegeman).

She also believes that some college is better than no college. Sometimes a degree means a broader range of knowledge and sometimes it shows that you are truly qualified for the position being offered to you. Sometimes if your degree is not for the field you are applying for, a person still has a better chance at getting that second interview than that person carrying around only their high school diploma. For example a student may have a degree in biology and are competing for a job against a person who has been out of high school for nearly a year.

Who is going to be more appealing education wise to a chain restaurant CEO who just opened a new restaurant in town and is looking for a new assistant manager? Whereas the high school graduate has general social skills and the state required general education, graduating with a 3. 5 GPA, the college graduate tends to have better social skills, has taken general education for college as well as high school which broadens the range of knowledge, and has gone the extra mile to get a 3. 5 GPA in college to prove he has learned more than the average citizen.

Liz Addison believes that the community college system is one of the best things America has to offer in terms of higher education (Addison 214). With our whole country trying to get everyone to pursue some sort of college, community college is the way to go for a lot of people. It’s cheaper than most state named colleges and gets you the same general education required for an associate’s degree. Purtle thinks that “…it really depends on the teachers’ abilities to teach at each school. I learned more from my calculus class at maple woods than I did in my calculus class here because my teacher wasn’t a very good teacher here.

I don’t think it matters what you pay so much as it matters what kind teacher you are given,” when it comes to what you actually get in college in terms of knowledge gained. And if given the chance, explaining it to your possible boss tell them about an experience like Mr. Purtle’s. It makes you stand out as an individual, definitely more than just a high school diploma or a GED. As a student myself I also find that having higher education certification as a Certified Nurse’s Assistant (CNA) has helped me with my previous jobs. During high school I also attended a technical school to get my CAN for a better job.

After I applied for a job at a home health care clinic I ended up getting the job instead of the person who just got out of high school but was on her way to college. Technically we could both do the work, but my CNA showed my employer that I could do the job better because I had experience and was approved by the state. That is just one of many examples that made me feel that higher education is important in the work force. Writers Dreifus and Hacker believe “…that college should be a cultural journey, an intellectual expedition, a voyage confronting new ideas and information,” (Dreifus and Hacker 188).

Most good employers realize that your degree does not specifically say what you learned in college along with everything to earn your degree. What employer is really going to tell you that because you have a certain degree, that’s all you learned? Many company owners and business managers recognize that you aren’t bound to only the requirements specified in your degree. This is exactly the reason potential employers are more likely to select their new employee from the pool of people with proof of higher education instead of those who don’t.

You are the absolute center of your own experiences, which is why you should make them good experiences that you learn from and that help you get ahead. I believe a college degree means more to businesses than just having made it through general education. Everyone has their own opinion about what will get them further in the world, but for most of us our employer’s opinions on how much your degree really means is what most determines your money making future.

Support Childrens Speech


Any knowledge evidence integral to these learning outcomes may be generated outside of the work environment but the final assessment decision must be within the real work environment. This unit is competence based. This means that it is linked to the candidate’s ability to competently perform a range of tasks connected with their work. This unit may be assessed using any method, or combination of methods, which clearly demonstrates that the learning outcomes and assessment criteria have been met. This unit requires workplace assessment of occupational competence.

Competence based assessment must include direct observation as the main source of evidence. Guidance on assessment and evidence requirements OCR does not stipulate the mode of delivery for the teaching of the content of this unit. Centres are free to deliver this unit using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their candidates. Centres should consider the candidates’ complete learning experience when designing learning programmes. © OCR 2010 3 Details of relationship between the unit and national occupational standards This unit has been developed by Skills for Care and Development in Partnership with Awarding Organisations.

It provides a key progression route between education and employment (or further study/training leading to employment). It is directly relevant to the needs of employers and relates to national occupational standards developed by Skills for Care and Development. As such, the unit may provide evidence for the following national occupational standards in the children and young people’s workforce developed by Skills for Care and Development:

Functional skills signposting This section indicates where candidates may have an opportunity to develop their functional skills. Link to functional skills standards http://www. qcda. gov. uk/15565. aspx Functional Skills Standards English Mathematics ICT Speaking and Listening ? Representing Use ICT systems Reading ? Analysing Find and select information Writing ? Interpreting Develop, present and communicate information Additional information For further information regarding administration for this qualification, please refer to the OCR document ‘Administrative Guide for Vocational Qualifications’ (A850).

The OCR Children and Young People’s Workforce Centre Handbook contains important information for anyone delivering, working towards or involved with the Children and Young People’s Workforce qualifications, of which this unit forms a part. This can be downloaded from OCR’s website www. ocr. org. uk. This unit is a shared unit. It is located within the subject/sector classification system.

Aristotle Was a Greek Philosopher and Polymath


Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato’s teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics.

Aristotle’s views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.

In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as ?????? ????? – “The First Teacher”. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.

Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as “a river of gold”), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived. Aristotle, whose name means “the best purpose,” was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC, about 55 km (34 mi) east of modern-day Thessaloniki. His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy.

At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato’s Academy. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years before quitting Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure reports that he was disappointed with the direction the academy took after control passed to Plato’s nephew Speusippus upon his death, although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato had died. He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor.

While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Hermias’s adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias’ death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC. Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon.

During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be ‘a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants’. By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum.

Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. Aristotle’s school and library In 335 BC, Athens fell under Macedonian rule and Aristotle, aged 50, returned from Asia. Upon his return to Athens, Aristotle began teaching regularly in the morning in the Lyceum and founded an official school, The Lyceum.

After his morning lessons Aristotle would frequently lecture on the grounds for the public, and manuscripts of his compiled lectures were eventually circulated. The group of scholars who followed the Aristotelian doctrine came to be known as the Peripatetics due to Aristotle’s tendency to walk as he taught. Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.

Aristotle’s main foci as a teacher were cooperative research, an idea which he founded through his natural history work and systematic collection of philosophical works to contribute to his library. His students were assigned historical or scientific research projects as part of their studies. The school was also student run. The students elected a new student administrator to work with the school leadership every ten days, allowing all the students to become involved in turn. Before returning to Athens, Aristotle had been the tutor of Alexander of Macedonia, who became the great conqueror Alexander the Great.

Throughout his conquests of various regions, Alexander collected plant and animal specimens for Aristotle’s research, allowing Aristotle to develop the first zoo and botanical garden in existence. It is also suspected that Alexander donated what would be the equivalent of more than 4 million dollars to the Lyceum. In 322 BC Aristotle was forced to flee Athens with his family when the political leadership reacted against the Macedonians again and his previously published works supporting Macedonian rule left him a target.

He passed on his Lyceum to Theophrastus and died later that year in Chalcis, near his hometown. It is during this period in Athens from 335 to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works. Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics.

Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge.

It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time. Near the end of Alexander’s life, Alexander began to suspect plots against himself, and threatened Aristotle in letters. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander’s pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle’s grandnephew Callisthenes as a traitor. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander’s death, but there is little evidence for this.

Upon Alexander’s death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Aristotle fled the city to his mother’s family estate in Chalcis, explaining, “I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy,” a reference to Athens’s prior trial and execution of Socrates. He died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife. History of Aristotle’s library

Theophrastus placed a provision in his will that left the Lyceum library, which at this point included both his and Aristotle’s work as well as student research, philosophical historical texts and histories of philosophy, to his supposed follower, Neleus. However, the seniors of the Lyceum placed Strato as the next leader and upon his retirement from the school in the mid 3rd century BC, Neleus divorced the Lyceum from its library and took all of the books with him to Skepsis in Mysia Neleus was an expert on Theophrastus and Aristotle and it may be Theophrastus hoped he would prepare a catalogue of the 10,000 rolls of papyrus.

At least some of the books seem to have been sold to the library in Alexandria. In the 10th century a catalogue of the library revealed manuscripts by both Theophrastus and Aristotle which almost had to have been obtained from Neleus. The rest seem to have been hidden by his family, known for their ignorance . The library then disappeared for several centuries until it appears to have been bought from Neleus’ heirs in the 1st century BC and returned to the school. However, when Sulla attacked Athens, the books were shipped to Rome.

Throughout their travels one fifth of Aristotle’s works were lost and thus are not a part of the modern Aristotelian collection. Still, what did remain of Aristotle’s works and the rest of the library were arranged and edited for school use between 73 and 20 BC, supposedly by Andronicus of Rhodes, the Lyceum’s eleventh leader. Since then the remaining works have been translated and widely distributed, providing much of the modern knowledge of historic philosophy. Legacy

More than twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of many new fields. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, “it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did”. Aristotle was the founder of formal logic. pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.

Despite these achievements, the influence of Aristotle’s errors is considered by some to have held back science considerably. Bertrand Russell notes that “almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine”. Russell also refers to Aristotle’s ethics as “repulsive”, and calls his logic “as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy”. Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.

Later Greek philosophers The immediate influence of Aristotle’s work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle’s notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle’s influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter’s bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher.

Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle’s geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained “Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men’s common property? ” Influence on Byzantine scholars Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle by copying all the extant Greek language manuscripts of the corpus.

The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were John Philoponus, Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria in the early seventh century. John Philoponus stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle’s views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of Aristotelian thought. After a hiatus of several centuries, formal commentary by Eustratius and Michael of Ephesus reappears in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by Anna Comnena[78] Influence on Islamic theologians

Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle, as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers, scientists and scholars. Averroes, Avicenna and Alpharabius, who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. Alkindus considered Aristotle as the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the “exemplar” for all future philosophers.

Medieval Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle as the “First Teacher”. The title “teacher” was first given to Aristotle by Muslim scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic philosophy. In accordance with the Greek theorists, the Muslims considered Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system, and believed that Aristotle shared with Plato essential tenets of thought. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas.

Influence on Western Christian theologians With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by Gerard of Cremona, and from the original Greek, such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke.

After Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke’s translations, the demand for Aristotle’s writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe that continued into the Renaissance. Aristotle is referred to as “The Philosopher” by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. See Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3, etc. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages.

It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having                       at his beddes heed Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed, Of aristotle and his philosophie, The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell, I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family,

By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest. Post-Enlightenment thinkers The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle’s rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue – or arete – of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy.

It is Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as “the greatest philosopher in history” and cited him as a major influence on her thinking. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.

Theory of Knowledge Aims and Objectives


Consider that knowledge may place responsibilities on the knower. Knowledge absolutely may place responsibilities on the knower in a lot of situations. An obvious example of this is a situation where one person knows of another person’s criminal intentions. That knowledge means that the knower has the responsibility of informing the police, because no one else has the knowledge to do so. If they don’t inform the authorities, then any resulting illegal event is as much their fault as it is the criminal’s, because they could have had it prevented.

In ordinary situations, in which there is no illegal activity, it is still true that knowledge can place responsibilities on the knower. If a person has knowledge, it is reasonable to expect that he or she will use that knowledge appropriately in their everyday lives. Things as simple as watching their tongue if they are speaking with someone they know to be religious, so that they don’t offend or alienate them, or choosing to ignore some characteristics or details of a person if they know that the person is sensitive about them.

If, however, they did not know that the person they swore in front of was religious, then it wouldn’t be their fault for offending them. They didn’t know. But if they did know, then they would definitely be held responsible for offending them, because they did not show respect for their beliefs and values. On any level, it is important for a person to take note of the knowledge they have, and to use it accordingly. If they do not take responsibility for the knowledge, they will be held responsible for the consequences.

Identify values underlying judgements and knowledge claims pertinent to local and global issues. It is important to be able to identify values underlying judgements and knowledge claims relevant to local and global issues, because of the many different cultures that could be contributing and how they could affect these judgements and knowledge claims. It is important to be aware of the underlying values because they are almost without a doubt rooted in some type of culture or another, and as is obvious, all cultures have their differences.

So, in identifying these values, a person can better understand why some judgements or knowledge claims were made, in turn allowing them to be less close-minded about them and how they affect various cultures and peoples. If a person can’t identify the values underlying judgements and knowledge claims, then they have no way of determining the reasoning behind them, and so they may never understand why some decisions are made, whether in their community, or globally.