Category: Golden Papers
How to Conduct College Level Research
Research is the systematic process of gathering information, data and facts for the advancement of knowledge. It involves several processes and has to be done accordingly.
In conducting research, it is important that the researcher knows what he or she wants to study. As such, research begins with choosing the topic. If there is already a topic at hand, the second step is formulating a problem. It is a formulated question that the researcher yearns to answer and to find out in the whole research process.
The next process is identifying the objectives of the research. The question is: “what is the purpose of the study?” The researcher has to formulate major objectives of the thesis and from those major objectives, formulate the specific objectives. After that, make a review of related literature. Gather those literatures that have something to do with the study. And then formulate the theoretical framework and identify the theories that are applicable on the research. Theories are important because they serve as the skeleton of the research. The researcher has to answer the formulated problem in accordance to the theory or theories that have been selected.
Finally, identify the methods to be used in gathering the data and the information needed. In conducting scholarly research, books are still the best source. Internet is not recommended however, it still bestows some information that are not on printed materials but make sure that the Internet source is credible. Primary sources like interviews and surveys are recommended. It helps a lot in gathering the desired knowledge.
Research is a tedious work. It needs discipline and patience. Everything begins from choosing the subject to be studied and to be researched so it is of vital importance that whatever topic the researcher chooses, just make sure that it is within the researcher’s interests because the motivation to finish the research lies primarily on what has been started.
How to Change the World
At present time, it is seen evident that the world is more involved to social issues and environmental problems that are all seen to effect negative results in the society and with nature. As such, there have been various negative phenomenons that have happened which further aggravated the awful global condition.
Though the world may seem to be troubled and badly challenged in both social and environmental context, there are still possible answers that could pave the way towards positive changes. Thus, the significance of education is seen to be one of the answers that could possibly change the world and alter the adverse global condition. With the fact that education is significant in the life of every individual in which it usually regarded as a helpful partner towards attaining success in life, it can be stated that the meaning and repercussion of education is one of the probable factors that could change the world in different context. First, through education, the global problem about poverty is could possibly be addressed and resolved accordingly. Also, finishing studies from school and obtaining the appropriate education as well as gaining positive personal behavior and characteristics, such could possibly lessen and even eliminate global social problem with regards to violence and cultural differences, which could restore unity and strengthen the world peace. Nonetheless, the implications of education could possibly serve as a light in the middle of darkness about worldwide financial crisis that has been providing hardships and difficulties in different countries around the globe.
In addition to this, strengthening the worldwide awareness campaign in rendering necessary facts and essential information about global warming is also one of the appropriate ways to render change in the world. Thus, such notions could possibly render probable answers that could pave the way towards changes in resolving the worldwide problem with regard to global warming. In the end, though the world seems challenged with different social issues and environmental problems, there are still probable answers to these. With the unity and trust from one, such problems and issues are could possibly be resolve that could pave the way towards changing the current situation of the world.
How to Belong
I find high school a challenge. That’s because I don’t really fit in there. I don’t feel like I belong and that I have anything in common with the people at the school. They don’t like me either. They think they are better than me and that kids like me are embarrassments to their school.
The reason I think I feel that I don’t fit in is related to my sense of identity. My sense of identity relates to the importance that I have placed upon myself as an individual. Even though my perceptions of myself are discrete, they have not been formed in isolation from what is going on around me. We categorize ourselves according to other people and groups of people and we define ourselves both by the groups to which we belong and how those groups compare with other groups. In an online article Changing Minds describe how these group comparisons lead to social comparisons, “we also define ourselves by comparison and contrast with others. If we have more than others, we feel superior. If everyone has the same as us, we feel equal” (2003). Jason Tocci from the Annenberg School for Communication describes how, in the high school environment, money and wealth often act as a very strong social marker and creates a split between different groups of students, “High school social hierarchies have been likened to caste systems, with students’ status displayed and maintained largely through consumptive practices” (3). I believe this is true of my own high school.
My high school consists of two main groups of students. Those who are from middle to low class working families and those who are from middle to upper class families. The latter group is much more prevalent in my school and these students are known as the “rich kids”. This social stratification is very important to where you fit in and whom you hang out with at my school. The rich kids have expensive clothes and cars, date the best looking girls and seem to remain popular no matter how they behave. I know a guy who has cheated on his girlfriend several times but she still stays with him; he is the most popular guy in school and she wants to be associated with his group, even if he does make a fool of her sometimes.
Kids like me belong to the other group. I am not exactly poor but I do not have the same amount of money that these guys have. I do not belong with these guys because I do not have the latest designer clothes and a nice sports car. Because I don’t have these things the rich kids are not interested in me, they are only nice to people like them. I can’t hang out with them because I can’t afford to do the things they do, like going skiing or shopping in designer malls and because they have nothing in common with me- I am an outsider.
Tocci, J. “The Well Dressed Geek: Media Appropriation and Sub cultural Style”. Paper presented at MiT5, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, April 29, 2007. November 15 2008 <http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:I1hRwYv6p4wJ:web.mit.edu/comm-forum/mit5/papers/Tocci.pdf+%22rich+kids%22+%22high+school%22+%22sense+of+identity%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&client=safari>
“The Need for a Sense of Identity”. Changing Minds Syque, 2003. 15th November 2008 <“http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/identity.htm>
Literature emphasized a flexibility of structure adapted to shifting substance, encouraged the improvement of multifaceted and enthralling plots, and sanctioned diverse genres. And because of the diversity brought by literature, writers all over the world, of different genres, of different ages, have constantly shown significant influences to each other. In particular, the Romantic period has been a major influence of the present and future poets, novelists and all kinds of writers. Writers makes use of personal experiences and individual point of views in writing wherein they are able to express more of what they really want to convey, thus the Romantic period reveals enormous effect on all writers of today and tomorrow.
The Romantic period is a far-reaching but crucial modern period applied to the philosophical shift within Western mind-set to human and art creativity that conquered much of the American culture during the initial part of the 19th century, and that has fashioned most ensuing progress in literature, even those against it (Gravil 27). According to Gravil, “declining the ordered consistency of the Enlightenment as impersonal, mechanical, and artificial, the Romantics eventually turned to the emotional truthfulness of personal understanding and to the boundlessness of personality ambition and imagination (Gravil 27).” More and more independent of the deteriorating system of aristocratic benefaction, the Romantics view themselves as the “free spirits” conveying their creative truths; some found aficionados ready to glorification of the artist as a mastermind or diviner (Gravil 27).
Romanticism is not characterized with a distinct philosophy, but romanticism generally defined by an extremely imaginative and personal approach and an illusory or visionary feature. The level of emotions in romantic literature may be mysterious, too extreme and indefinable. The romantics proved a resemblance for nature, particularly its inexplicable and wild characteristics.
Romanticism established the sect of the individual and won the independence of human spirit. Novelists, philosophers, musicians, artists and painters provided more reserved instructions and the novelists and artists, in particular, collaborated by means of their philosophies and works of art to be able to let romanticism come into view. In these works the novelists, philosophers, musicians, artists and painters celebrated the romantic character as manifested in songs, literature, structural design, and plays of several English playwrights (Abrams 27).
Poets confirmed the significance of emotion and imagination to rhythmical construction and renounced the conventional literary forms as well as subjects. As a consequence, Abrams noted that “as romantic literature all over the place developed, imagination was eulogized over rationale, emotions over judgment, and perception over science – all making a way for an enormous body of artworks of great emotional response and enthusiasm (Abrams 27).” Future writers arrived at a freedom of having taste for wild perspective, inspirational prospects – a tendency reflected within the increasing highlighting in aesthetic presumption on the awe-inspiring as opposed to the good-looking – these are inclinations brought by the Romantic era. Emotions as subject matter began to be measured more significant than explanation in literature and manner characterized by the work of the novelists, philosophers, musicians, artists and painters.
Writers of the past, present and of the future emerged more and more as they go through a transformation from reason toward emotion. Imagination began to be revealed not only writing but also in the field of visual and performing arts. Romanticism have become a great influence for future writers in their works as they are defined by reliance on the imagination and partisanship of approach, freedom of thinking and expression, as well as a glorification of natural world. Given that Romanticism predominantly pertains to the relevance of individual perspective, emotions and imaginations, this period greatly influences future writers.
Abrams, M.H. English Romanticism: The Spirit of the Age. Romanticism Reconsidered. Ed.
Northrop Frye. New York: Columbia UP, 1963.
Gravil, R. Tintern Abbey and the System of Nature. Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 6.1, 2000.
How the novel, My Antonia, reflects the authors own life and the American history and culture of its time
A literary work of an author, particularly a work of fiction often represents something real about the author. It can be a personal experience or a personal characteristic that the author consciously or unconsciously wishes to narrate to the reader through the work of fiction. Literary analysts around the world have proven time and again how some of the important aspects of a particular work of fiction are similar, representative or illustrative of one or many characteristics of the author. This is the same case in analyzing Willa Cather and her work “My Antonia.” This paper will establish the connection between the author’s life and the novel by explaining how the novel reflects the life of Willa Cather and at the same time the American history and culture during Cather’s time and the time of the novel’s setting, accomplishing this task through the use of credible referenced and published works authored by professionals who studied, criticized and analyzed Willa Cather and her works and created important inputs that are important credible sources for this paper.
My Antonia and Willa Cather’s Gender-bending
One of the characteristics of Cather’s writing is gender bending. This is evident in her works including My Antonia. “Coupled with being a tomboyish figure in her personal life, Cather showcased gender-bending young women in her professional writings (Abate 98).” Through her gender-bending, she is able to talk about what she is doing herself in real life. She was gender bending in real life by breaking accepted customs. “It was clear that even from an early age Cather was a nonconformist (Champion 67).” She attacked customs, like those on genders like what women should wear and what men should wear, what is an acceptable woman’s name and what is a name reserved for men alone.
Take for example, the use of name. Cather went against the norm by naming herself William – or Willa, a man’s name. “Cropping her hair, calling herself William and engaging in boys’ activities, her gender iconoclasm was infamous (Abate 98).” But she is not alone. She shared this characteristic with her My Antonia title-character. Antonia, Cather’s woman lead character who is the main tool of Cather’s gender-breaking efforts in the story, was also referred to as Tony, a name that is usually attributed to a man.
But the idea of gender bending that Cather has as a personal conviction and as a writing style is not a mere reflection of being someone who is counter culture purely for the sake of being not ordinary. Growing up in Nebraska where families like Cather’s worked hard, the gender bending style and instinct was a product of Cather’s personality as someone being strong and someone who can equal a man, a personality that Cather shared with the fictional Antonia. “Similarly, at various points throughout My Antonia, Antonia ‘Tony’ Shimerda flexes her muscles and prides herself n being able to work like a mans (Abate 98),” something that she said herself (Cather 80).
Cather’s penchant for going against the norm, illustrated by her being tomboyish, mixed with the unsure feeling about how she felt about her own sexuality and how she should sexually react to men (as tradition and norm dictates) and to women (as her anti-social instinct tells her) can be attributed to the logic presented by some critics who believe that included in Cather’s gender bending style in real life and in her writings (including My Antonia as well as her other works). Resulting to this particular approach in personal life and in character building in her story was that Cather ultimately became afraid of sex. And because of that, she sometimes made her male heroes in the story fearful of the same thing. “Gelfant’s essay is particularly significant not only in its reading of My Antonia but in its penetrating analysis of Cather’s fear of sex as revealed in her life and her fiction (Love 166).”
The author included in the analysis that this particular characteristic of Cather and her leading hero is hard to miss. It was Cather’s own weakness that made her hero weak too, in a way connecting the author and the person in her fictional literary work. “No careful reader of Cather can fail to find Gelfant’s thesis provocative and deep-going. She maintains that Jim Burden is an unreliable narrator because he is afraid of sex (Love 166).”
My Antonia, The Use of the Male Voice and Willa Cather’s Tomboyish Personality
Cather is very notorious for using a male voice as the narrator for her stories. This is attributed to the fact that many believed that Cather was leaning towards being in the more masculine side. The use of the male voice – like using Jim Burden in My Antonia – is reflective of the inclination to be more boyish than to be a girl. In more popular explanation, it seems that Cather was finding an outlet where he can be a “man,” and her stories allowed her the chance. By using a man as a narrator, Cather – the real narrator since she is the writer and story teller, lived inside a man’s body, in the case of My Antonia inside Jim’s body.
She was Jim. Cather cannot deny her tomboyish tendencies. Many analysts, critics and literary historians saw Cather for her works as much as for her tomboyish tendencies. “During the same time that Willa Cather was crafting the tomboyish characters of My Antonia and O Pioneers!, gender bending female figures were making their way into an entirely new medium (Abate 118).” These lines refer to Cather as more than an author but a person who lived and set a particular milestone in a particular gender-centered change and movement.
There are several proofs that support the idea that somehow Cather was thinking that Jim – the narrator in My Antonia – was her. One of the proofs is the many parallelisms in the life of Jim. In the life of Cather, parallelisms that, in turn, support the idea that the novel was a reflection of the life of the author and illustrated many important aspects about Cather as a real person. Take for example, the journey that Jim made in his life, travelling from one place to another. According to some critics like Meisel, this particular aspect of Jim symbolizes a particular incident and/or experience that Cather had for herself, particularly the experience of migrating from one place to another. “As a boy, Burden reads a Life of Jesse James on his first journey west (Meisel 100).” This is something that is akin to a “trip resembling Cather’s own girlhood migration from Virginia to Nebraska (Meisel 100).”
Connected to the instinct that Cather was thinking that she was Jim was the idea that Cather was tomboyish. Her selection of a male character as her chief story teller in many of her works reflects just one of the many efforts that she took to satiate her tomboyish instincts and needs. “The latter adoption of ‘Willa’ was a compromise between the tomboy she was and the girl she was supposed to be (Champion 67).” Cather was tomboyish and the two central characters in the story My Antonia was both Cather’s reflection in separate yet connected ways. Jim was the real man character that Cather wanted to be in real life, and Antonia represent Cather, as both of them are tomboyish have families with immigrant backgrounds. “Four years after the appearance of O Pioneers! Willa Cather published a second novel about a tomboyish immigrant on the prairie: My Antonia (Abate 107).”
How the Novel Reflects and is Influenced by the American History and Culture of its Time
The novel was trying to capture the essence of a particular time and place in the American history. Cather allowed the story and the characters to be influenced by how Nebraska and America was during the time. It showed how the real situations affected real people (which she witnessed first hand), making the novel an important testament in the Nebraska (and American) lifestyle and culture, especially in the discussion of the lifestyle, culture and tradition in Nebraska during the time of Cather and during the time of the life of her characters Jim Burden and Antonia. Indeed, the narration of the life of Jim, as well as of Antonia while they were both in Nebraska, was somewhat symbolic of the life of Cather, in many different ways – her personality, her family life, her experiences, her thoughts and her imaginations. “Like My Antonia, its grounds are Cather’s own girlhood Nebraska (Meisel 86).”
Cather’s passion for the place where she grew up (Nebraska) is reflected in her writing style, largely in the selection of the setting where Cather would place the story. Critics notice this particular trend in Cather’s writing style; proof enough is that three of her best works – O Pioneers!, A Lost Lady and of course My Antonia are all set in Nebraska, the central location is the same place where she grew up. Critics are not surprised by this because they believe the Cather saw and felt many things about Nebraska. She tried to encapsulate all of these things by immortalizing the place, the culture inside it, the people, the practice, the belief and tradition inside a literary work that can outlive many generations. “Though Cather would set novels in the American Southwest, in Quebec, and in Avignon, France, Nebraska would provide the inspiration for her best work…that enact the promise, fruitition, and decline of the Garden of the West (Greasley 100).”
But it was not only the place that Cather wanted to capture through the inclusion of the place in her work. More important than that, Cather was trying to immortalize the essence and ethos which she believes in some point represent the place she holds a deep affinity with, and this is reflective in the story My Antonia. “In My Antonia Cather represents the Midwest at its peak, with its vast fertile farmlands offering a new chance to everyone who is willing to work hard (Greasley 100).” Somehow the idea of living in Nebraska and working hard was a similar characteristic found in Antonia and her household, as with Cather and her family during her younger days. Cather was one of the select few who talked about Nebraska in her works after “spending the bulk of her childhood in Nebraska (Abate 98).”
Besides working hard, the story was also illustrative of what Cather believed she was detached or removed from as someone who grew up in a place like Nevada. She came from a family who migrated from one place to another, and so was the Shimerda family of Antonia. In the story My Antonia, Cather had the chance to talk about what she felt was the absence that is experienced by people like her, by people like the Shimerda, something that they shared commonly. “The first book of My Antonia describes the grinding poverty of the Bohemian immigrants, but their worst privations are not material (Meyering 18).” This idea of being deprived not in the material way is a feeling that Cather felt that was noticed by the critics and analysts, explaining that the “first nine years of Cather’s life in the Blue Ridge Mountains provided a sense of safeness, perhaps even of smallness (Champion 67).”
There is no question that Willa Cather was one of the literary geniuses that contributed several works in the annals of American literature which is widely appreciated today. Cather’s works, no doubt, were a reflection of part of herself, or of her whole self scatted in many different pieces throughout the entire My Antonia story. Equally significant is the fact that besides the story reflecting the author as was the case in many other work of fiction, My Antonia was also able to capture an important part of the American culture and history. It was through the effective, evocative and skilled story telling of Cather that this was captured.
The theme of struggle, immigration, hard work, isolation, love, gender iconoclasm and everything else in between was effectively written in a story that has captured the inspiration of many other individuals who considered Cather as an important pillar of the literary world, during and past her time.
Cather was remarkable not just because of the stories that she told, but also because of the fact that she tried to approach story telling in a slightly different way and touched an aspect of gender and social life that was not usually tackled in other works. She was doing it in a way that empowers and inspires rather than create disdain, in the process allowing herself to create her own mark. “Tomboyism continued as a theme in Cather’s later and more well- known novels. Two of the narratives with which she established her reputation and for which she is commonly remembered today – the prairie novels O Pioneers! (1913) and My Antonia (1918) – showcase tomboyish main characters (Abate 98).”
Abate, Michelle Ann. Tomboys: A Literary and Cultural History. Temple University Press,
Cather, Willa Sibert. My Antonia. Forgotten Books, 1954.
Champion, Laurie. American Women Writers, 1900-1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical
Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated, 2000.
Greasley, Philip A. Dictionary of Midwestern Literature: The Authors, Vol. 1. Indiana
University Press, 2001.
Love, Glen. New Americans: The Westerner and the Modern Experience in the American
Novel. Bucknell University Press, 1982.
Meisel, Perry. The Cowboy and the Dandy: Crossing Over from Romanticism to Rock and
Roll. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Meyering, Sheryl L. Understanding O Pioneers! and My Antonia: A Student Casebook to
Issues, sources and Historical Documents. Greenwood Publishing Group,
Gate Gourmet is the world’s largest airline caterer operating in 5 continents, 26 countries, having 101 flight kitchens. Each year 200 million meals are served and according to the year 2007 2.5 billion CHF is recorded.
There are totally 250 airline customers and the company has world-class chefs who help in designing menus for the complete satisfaction of customers.
(a) Matter of concern
In the year 2005, Gate Gourmet handed over pink slips to 800 workers who are employed at Heathrow. These workers provide in-flight meals and employed by Gate Gourmet whose main client in UK is British Airways.
The grievance of catering assistants is that per annum salary is £12,000 whereas chauffeurs are earning £16,000 which is more than catering assistants. The workers are of the opinion that these wages are very low as compared to other expensive cities in the world. The company is providing very low wages which is the cause of dissatisfaction for workers. Further the management of the company is very harsh and rude with the workers in the course of execution of jobs. The workers want re-engagement in jobs and an increase in wages and in order to put forth request to the management, the workers have collectively approached the customers, to sponsor and recommend Gate Gourmet to take care of employees as without workers catering company cannot perform and run business. There are many disputes between workers and the management of Gate Gourmet which have to be solved. According to the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, Chapter 39, Section 1 states that workers are to be paid national minimum wage, Section 2 determines the hourly rate of remuneration, Section 3 states about exclusion of, and modifications for, certain classes of person, and Section 5 states about Low Pay Commission.
(b) Ethical Concern
Workers work in companies for regular source of income in order to make a living which is the basic entitlement for any educated or skilled worker. A worker receives remuneration based on education, experience and as per the terms and conditions of employment contract. Unfair dismissal, redundancy or wrongful dismissal strongly abuse the system of employment to a great extent leaving a huge negative impact on the young and energetic individuals who rely on monthly job income and in many workers around the world, depend on wages earned from companies whether on hourly basis or monthly basis.
Low wages, more working hours, harassment, ill-treatment, low incentives, and there are many other problems which are faced by workers in these days very silently, and no worker has a voice to raise against management due to the fear that the existing job would be lost and this problem is prevailing almost everywhere in the world whereas these problems must be solved, by recommending legal enactments which are the guidelines for workers to receive benefits from employment. Harmony between workers and management, appropriate communication and regular meetings with workers, are some of best possible means to receive feedback from the workers which is the absolute professional method of human resource management.
This is a moral issue, due to the fact that the workers when lose jobs, have to pass through a great disturbance by appealing to employment tribunals for receiving claims and also have to find employment which is again a time factor. Further low wages and non-payment of regular wages, would still deteriorate the status of living for workers who live as immigrant workers or resident workers, who do not have any other source of income apart from regular job.
Good workers are the assets of a company and exploitation of workers for the growth and progress of a company is entertained and should not be used as a negative source. The workers have to discharge duties in a perfect manner, that it does not result in over exploitation and also to enable jobs are peaceful. From a common employee perspective, the mindset of a worker would be to exercise duties quite diligently, honestly and with maximum efficiency and supporting this National Minimum Wage Act 1998 also recommends employers to adhere to the legal regulations laid down in several legal sections in Chapter 39 of National Minimum Wage Act 1998.
(c)Is it right or wrong to be given worker the national minimum wage whatever
It is in order to give entitlement for a worker to receive national minimum wages as specified in National Minimum Wage Act 1998 Section 1,2,3 which state about hourly rate can be determined by employer, and application of Section 3 who have not attained the age of 26 and apply rules of Low Pay Commission wherever required. Depending on the work load, hourly rate of wage can be fixed by employer which is acceptable under legal regulations of NMW Act 1998.
National Minimum Wage Act 1998 is enacted in the interest of workers who are eligible to receive the minimum wage that is fixed by employer either hourly or monthly. Further employees are also entitled to inspect records of wages and employers also must provide a statement of wages as a record evidence that workers are receiving the wages on a regular basis.
Gate Gourmet workers grievance was based on National Minimum Wage Act 1998 that workers are being paid very poor and demanded higher amount of wages.
Accessed 29 November, 2008
About Gate Gourmet
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Creative — Yet Practical — Ideas for Your Economy Class Meals
Accessed 29 November, 2008
The Industry’s Largest Team of Menu Design and Operational Chefs
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Menu Design and Food Preparations for Your Charter Flight
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Culinary Case Studies
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Gate Gourmet Dispute at London’s Heathrow Airport, Gate Gourmet agreement reached
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Message from the workers at Gate Gourmet catering company,
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Premium Catering, Delivering Value to Our Airline Partners
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Accessed 29 November, 2008
Terry Macalister, Gate Gourmet denies walking out of strike talks
Accessed 29 November, 2008
The media is an important institution in the modern day society because of its responsibility to the opinion; the responsibility to inform, educate and help in the creation of social awareness that can propel individuals towards action for a specific good. Since the birth of media and its role and influence in modern life, there were countless instances wherein the people relied on the role of the media for information and opinion formation, leading to the formation of socially held belief and conviction, and at times proactive action towards socially relevant issues. Media is still growing, form-wise, because technology makes it possible. But as the types of media expands and diversify, socially important issues remain present amidst day to day life growing and expanding and becoming more complex.
This triggers critical thinking to ask if the social issues are still being delivered to the consciousness of the people through the help of the media, or if the politics and economics of the media make media selective of the issues that it present to the people. People are now asking which among the current forms of media is still true to the nature and essence of the institution; discerning which between the traditional media or the new Internet media is pushing the limits of its capability to bring to the people what the people should know and not what the media wanted the people to know; obscuring those which the media believes people can live without; and in the process, denying the people the chance to opt for conviction and stand on this issue, one of which is the issue on world food crisis and the role media is playing in how this issue is brought (or not) to the consciousness of the people.
Because of that, the question that this paper will put forward becomes an important query especially among those who are critical about the sense of responsibility by the media to the people and the extent by which both traditional and new media tries to accomplish this responsibility or if they fail miserably in the duty that the society expects from it. It is important to ask the question how was the traditional media, particularly print media, differed with the Internet media in its coverage of the current world food crisis and, concurrently, how both media types informed the people of global warming an integral part of such social phenomenon.
As one of the leading countries with the most influential media institutions, the rest of the world is constantly affected by how America and its media approach and talks about social issues. Because of this, critics are worried when there are those who point out that the US is far from serious and concerned about the world food crisis, global warming, how they are related and how they are set to affect the entire world. If the institutions that affect the ebb and flow of American way of life are in general not concerned, will the US media be far behind and look in a different direction? “There is mounting scientific consensus that human-induced world climate changes will bring, sooner or later, massive increases in drought and desertification, an unleashing of more powerful storms, a rise in sea levels, and a crisis in food production. What this might mean for the world’s population, and what institutional mechanisms and social policies might be advanced to confront the situation, has been of practically no concern to American elites preoccupied with growth, profitability, and market shares (Boggs, 2000, p. 62).” This elites, including business entities and other corporate entities that are closely operating with traditional media, where most to have large investments on advertising in the hope that the consistent market position of what they are selling is helped greatly by the media mileage lifted from traditional media advertising.
The elites who are involved in the biofuel industry which according to the website Global Issues are belaying the perceived impact of global warming to the worsening of the world food crisis, a claim countered by World Bank and slapped United States’ lying face (Chakrabortty, 2008) – may heavily influence the editorializing of the news in the print media. But does the same follow in Internet? For one, the Internet provides more space and more avenue for more individuals to be vocally critical about today’s issues, unlike the constraints in the freedom of speech from the traditional forms of media (Global Issues is an example). Secondly, there are very little advertisers to please with content and third Internet news politics is a culture sans the horns, tails, pitchfork and pitfalls present in traditional media politics. With bigger space, quicker news delivery and less restraints compared to that of traditional media, the Internet media has a freer hand in the delivery of news, and it seems that people are noticing this trend in news delivery, particularly about the recent world food crisis.
Another website, Just Another Cover-up (justanothercoverup.com), ran a short article that served as an intro for a set of food crisis related articles from TIME Magazine and Bloomberg, among others. The article noted how this particular news was not picked up by the traditional media. The writer was obviously wondering why the American press in particular was not running front page story about the looming famine after the Bloomberg report, especially since this is a very serious social and global problem (Just Another Cover-up, 2008). This scenario is yet again another example of how the traditional media seemed to be marginalizing the news reporting about the current world food crisis, in effect highlighting the effort of the Internet media to carry on the vigilance in this particular social crisis. Traditional media seemed to have abandoned its role already so that it can attend to other different news that it deemed more news worthy than the world food crisis. Or are they just waiting for this crisis to be sensationalized enough with more hype? It is a solid material for high readership/viewership that, in the process of reporting, gives improved sales and higher advertising and media mileage value for their specific media outfits.
If there will be solid evidences backed by more in-depth research about the growing tendency of traditional media to marginalize the world food crisis, it will be not something new at all, since the US traditional media had always had the notoriety for ignoring issues such as this. Phillips (2000) wrote about how the US media was far from being the advocate of truth but instead a propagandist serving the interest of the few when it tackled the Korean food crisis at the turn of the century. “The US media used the Korean famine for political propaganda and has failed to cover the huge disaster from a humanitarian perspective…A humanitarian food crisis of staggering proportions has been developing in North Korea, yet nowhere has there been an outcry (Phillips, 2000, p. 64).”
Another possible precedent was the Somalia humanitarian crisis, which, experts believed, barely made a TV appearance after news hardly used this angle at all. “Similar to the print media, CBS evening broadcasts paid a low level of attention to Somalia. For the 21 days analysed, CBS ran only five news segments on Somalia. None of these were at the top of the news bulletin and only one was run within the first ten minutes of the news starting. The total airtime devoted to Somalia was a mere 3 minutes and 30 seconds. This equated to just 10 seconds of airtime per day to Somalia. In terms of content, all of these reports concerned the famine and/or refugees from Somalia (Robinson, 2002, p. 53).”
Indeed, the growing notion that the traditional media is becoming more and more selective in the news that it presents to the people forces the people to use the Internet as the new source of news. With the advantage of timeliness and space, the Internet proves to be the ideal new medium for those who are serious in bringing the news to the people. “In anticipation of the sparse media coverage that would be given to the WTO protests, over 500 media activists, videographers, journalists and computer scientists from around the world worked with the IMC to contribute to the limited media coverage of the events in the mainstream news. Video footage acquired from web-cams, video cameras, and satellite uplinks were streamed onto the Internet and supplied to a global audience via the World Wide Web (Frechette, 2002, p. 101).” If the coverage of the global food crisis, which is still ongoing and may still get worse, is close to zero coming from traditional media, it is certain that groups will resort to Internet news delivery instead, to be able to get their message across.
If traditional media, like newspapers, never recover from this particular situation, it will be a waste for newspapers for the attitude that they have helped instilled among the readers that makes it easy for information dissemination to take place. It is a difficult situation for Internet news since experts believe that the attitude of reading sections where social issues are found are still found higher among followers of traditional media compared to that of the Internet media. “Researchers found that online readers appeared to read fewer national, international and political news stories than readers of the print version (Li, Affe, 2005, p. 284).”
This is not to say that traditional media has totally ignored the world food crisis. On the contrary, these institutions are still reporting about it. But the manner by which they handle and deliver the news about this particular social problem is not as high impact as expected from an institution that is relied upon to wake up the people’s consciousness and push them to action. That is why some are praising the efforts of Internet news which, even without the muscle of traditional media, still finds more than sufficient enough rooms in the information highway for the global food crisis to be discussed, either through the posting of the online version of the news or through the creation and presence of discussion areas that allow individuals to interact and share thoughts about this particular social problem (including the online versions of newspapers as well as social issue discussion websites like SocialIssues.com).
It is easier to read about the current global food crisis in the website, while it is very difficult to find at least one article everyday about the aspects of global food crisis from the daily broadsheets. But the ideal resolution to this brewing conflict is not the control of just either the traditional media or the Internet media. But rather, the continued service of both to inform the people as best as they could without politics and editorializing. “There are lessons to be learned from every crisis…In particular, the tragedy has demonstrated the enormous influence of the media, especially the television. It has also been a defining moment for the Internet in the way it has been used by governments, aid agencies and individuals to inform people, enlist their help, raise funds to help the victims (Doeg, 2005, p. 230).”
Boggs, C. (January 2000). The End of Politics: Corporate Power and the Decline of the Public Sphere. Guilford Publications, Inc.
Chakrabortty, A. (July 4 2008). Secret report: biofuel caused food crisis [Internet],
The Guardian. Available from: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/03/biofuels.renewableenergy/print> [Accessed 18 September 2008].
Doeg, C. (July 2005). Crisis Management in the Food and Drinks Industry: A Practical Approach. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.
Frechette, J. D. (July 2002). Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
Global Issues (2008). Global Food Crisis [Internet], Available from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/758/global-food-crisis-2008#Richcountrieswronglyplaydownimpactofbiofuels [Accessed 18 September 2008].
Just Another Cover-Up (March 5, 2008). Is Time Magazine Warning us Of A Looming Food Crisis? [Internet], Available from: http://justanothercoverup.com/?p=408 [Accessed 18 September 2008].
Li, X. and Affe, R. B. (December 2005). Internet Newspapers The Making of a Mainstream Medium. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Phillips, P. (April 2000). Censored 2000: The News That Didn’t Make the News. Seven Stories Press.
Robinson, P. (July 2002). The CNN Effect: The Myth of News Media, Foreign Policy and Intervention. Taylor ; Francis, Inc.
How the Irish became a white?
There is a lot of racism action going on all over the world. Some are white some are black, some are Asians and some are Europeans. People are giving importance more to race than to his abilities. For example, an Asian can not play in most of the big clubs of Europe. Only because of his race that is he is an Asian and is related to there own culture. This makes white may be jealous or may be furious. This furiousness is putting a curtain on the abilities of that football player no matter how much guineas he is in his profession. This means racism is not yet killed and there is a need of a murder of this word from this wholly world. White can’t bear a black person in his school or college just because he is a black. This is not a valid reason to hate some one. We should try to know the person and if he is evil minded or there is such a case than we should do anything against them. No decisions should be taken on the basis of race.
This novel is also in concern with racism. It is written by Noel Iqnatiev. It was a story of essentially Irish Catholic exodus before and after the periods of starvation, colloquialism 1840 to the Civil War, and that people’s struggle to survive in this white, Protestant world. It’s a story after which a person feels sympathy. This is a tragic story says race has been a defining characteristic in U.S. culture and how the race question has also infected the white working class in this country. One might say that it is a story of how the Irish interchange their greenness for whiteness, and cooperate with the prominent white culture to continue the oppression of African Americans. This book is of is a Jewish author and blacks weren’t distinguish against the Irish need to just worked harder. They were to work harder for there survival in America as well.
The book was found to be a captivating and engaging one. A person can be fond of the book when he or she reads this book. There is the comparison between the two Irish people, one is living in Canada and one lives in the America. The history of the Irish in Canada is a little bit different from that of the American Irish. When we take an analysis of this book it could be concluded as a less painful one. This book give out a lot of light on issues that an individual can’t expect it be out, like black-white relations, school of thoughts or philosophical, and the contrast between the non modern North and South. This shows the strength of the novel and the bravery of the writer who exposed some of the hidden issues through his book. He lightened the issues which some of the Americans avoid. Americans stops it to be exposed as it causes the vulgar part of there nation, now it is better understood the reason behind Southerners saying that they have been unfairly changed and demonized with the attitude of people.
When the author says he wants to get rid of the ‘white race,’ he doesn’t means that he wants to get distant from white people rather he means that he wants to get away of the category, ‘white’, which is neither established nor especially significant. The author refers to the pale-skinned of himself as a ‘Jew’ rather than as ‘white’ which further declares his point about race somewhat conveniently. ‘White’ doesn’t only means that there color of the skin is white. It has different meanings. What the author is trying to point out is that blacks were subjugate before the theory of white racism came about, people with white skin were not necessarily treated or respected as ‘white’ automatically. They now don’t go only for color rather they go beyond it, searching for its social position. Now white is not just a color, it is a social position that the Irish had to struggle very hard to get it. Even after there millions of efforts they couldn’t get the position they deserve because of racism. This is actually what a black is.
This book is not looked as an attempt to smear or blame the Irish. This book is not more about an Irish man or something like that; rather it is the study of American immigration and assimilation to racial ideals. The Irish’s role is for the upbringing of this issue into society. He is just an example of racism world showing what is going on in this world. The author has actually exposed and uncovered the issue of the racism. In the conditions of severe starvation, turmoil, and harsh as well as rude competition, people do what they need to do to get by there basics. They have to fight for there survival. They need to work very harder to get there basics. To eat, to buy, to live they need to actually rub there ass. People when watch somebody higher in status than they actually are, an individual felts jealous. There is an envious spirit in them which demands them to go into the upper class where the status is high and if that is not possible they should go in the middle class where there is at least some status. The real reason for the greater hard work is the increasing need of survival as well as self-respect. They want some part of satisfaction and superciliousness. In the novel the poor and the blacks are fighting amongst themselves to get some sort of protective embankment. This makes a reader down because they should have been together and should have fight against the same reason that is racism. They should have fought for there freedom. They should have fought for more humanly rights and many other reasons but they should have tightened themselves with the same rope. This is how the book is proving itself as a positive product. It is based on the reality and had gone into the threads of the reality. It has exposed the reality of the real America. It has created the difference between the on screen America and off screen America. This shows that the author has been brave in showing and revealing of the reality without any fear.
Although there are a number of good things related to the novel but still there are a number of them which shows the negative points of the novel. These include the title of the book which is one of the biggest facto of success. The title of book is considered as the most attractive of the book which actually attains attention of the reader. It was described by one of the reader as a ‘stupid title’. He said that he could understand the meaning of white after reading the novel but when he was buying the book, white was looking as only a color and Irish people are even more whiter than the Americans are so he found it stupid as it than means that a milk turning into white. The title was really considered as foolish one. According to some readers there was a need of a few more chapters. The book all of a sudden ends up around the time of Reconstruction, and clearly the absorption and development of the Irish into ‘white’ society was not finished at that point. There was also a need of focalization on a few of the chapters of the start. These were some weaknesses of the book which were easily recognized. If the author had overcome these mistakes there would be a perfect novel in the market and would have been the most selling one as well.
Although it has a few weakness in the novel but the strengths of the novel actually covers it and makes a person delighted after reading it. The weaknesses are more ignorable and forgettable. This is a perfect example of taking the curtains of a hidden issue just like the author did to the racism issue. It has also a delightful story and it also highlights the social issues. It also gives the importance of brotherhood in between the poor and the black so that they could fight against racism. It is a perfect example of exposing an issue.
The Internet: Its Effects on the Individual and the Society
The rise of the internet in previous years led to several changes in the society and among millions of individuals across the world. Both negative and positive changes created a new social landscape where innovations are constantly introduced, thereby changing the society and the ways in which people behave on a regular basis. For the most part, some of the effects of the internet to people and to the larger society include the heightened risk of moral degradation, the increase in the accessibility to and volume of knowledge available, the hastening of communication regardless of geographical limits and the increasing challenges to the strength of nations and the international community in safeguarding the population from the threats to the people.
Online pornography is a rampant problem affecting the internet today primarily due to two basic reasons among others. These reasons include the ease of establishing a website in terms of cost and technical qualifications and the existence of individuals who comprise the bulk of people supporting and creating the demand for such websites. Moreover, it is very difficult to limit the group of people who can access online materials with pornographic or sexually explicit content. While the addiction of certain adults to online pornography is already a huge problem, the more pressing issue is the fact that even minors tend to get hooked into the perverse habit (Fisher and Barak, p. 315). As a result, minors are exposed to online obscenities that degrade their sense of morality.
The increase in the number of websites offering adult content has become a trend in recent years, signifying that the end of online obscenity and pornography is nowhere near in sight. The financial profit gained from creating such websites further push individuals to invest in such online ventures, thereby increasing the number of obscene websites which children can freely access especially with the absence of the guidance of their parents or guardians. The fact that minors can easily gain access to these websites and get hooked into them is evidence to the claim that online perversion has eroded the morality of certain individuals (Gossett and Byrne, p. 691). From a larger standpoint, contemporary society faces the difficult challenge of avoiding the degradation of the people’s morality with regard to the unabated and uncontrolled expansion of the internet. The effect of the degradation of morality through the internet is stronger on the individuals than the society primarily because online pornography attracts individuals at first even before the whole society can take notice of it.
The internet has also been used for several criminal acts which involve individuals who stalk people in social networking sites as well as criminals who operate through the online world. Internet hacking remains one of the most formidable threats to the security of individuals and institutions. Privacy of sensitive information and security of personal property face the dangers of being taken over by online hackers who steal the identities of individuals and bank accounts (Wible, p. 1561), for instance. Unsuspecting users of online social networking sites also face the risk of getting stalked by individuals with sinister motives.
Although there are measures used to safeguard internet users from the dangers of online hacking, the incidences of online hacking continue to persist through the years as hackers continue to evolve in terms of their online methods (Wible, p. 1562). One of the main reasons why online hacking has become widespread is the fact that some internet users—especially those who are new to the internet—are not familiar with the security measures needed to protect themselves from the dangers of online hacking and stalking. Criminals have taken advantage over this weakness of some individuals while realizing the need to keep at pace with the evolution of the security measures in the internet. The effect of cyber crimes is stronger on the society because the very presence of these crimes directly affects the behavior of the entire society. Hacking and online stalking are just some of the dangers in the internet that pose real threats to life and property that can bring damages to people on a large scale (Bigos, p. 586). As the internet knows very little boundaries, the international community faces the great challenge of hunting down cyber criminals who leave very minimal “digital footprints” and of knowing how to deal with them in terms of the international judicial system.
On a positive note, the internet has increased the information available for people regardless of location. Accessibility to online databases of the most relevant data has rapidly increased through time as more and more online repository of files become available to the so-called “browsing” public. Today, students in many learning institutions are given the opportunity to have access to virtual libraries in order to aid them in their academic researches. Professionals now have the chance to purchase rare editions of journals and books in digital form through online archives ready for download with the click of a mouse button. Sharing of knowledge has also become a key feature of the internet as people can share their expertise on specific fields to other people through online forum or blogs. There are also online courses available where people can enroll and learn online through specialized websites tailored according to the teaching services offered by learning institutions (Warschauer, p. 72).
The society largely benefits from the increase in the volume and availability of information through the internet. As individuals receive increasing benefits from online information, the society becomes composed of people who are more knowledgeable and more aware of their surroundings. A society that is more informed is a society that contains great potential in terms of social development. Without the internet, the current trends in information assimilation would have hardly been made possible.
Another positive side of the internet is that it has hastened communication across wide distances. Interestingly, distance has now become irrelevant with the advent of instant messaging services available online. A person living in Germany, for instance, can easily send a message to another person living in the United States through the use of online chat. Emails have also helped people send lengthy messages containing photos and other file formats across huge distances with very minimal delays. Sending and receiving files have never been faster than today where individuals can use their emails to communicate on a regular basis—hourly, daily, weekly, it no longer matters. All these were direct results of the realization of the potential of the internet to dissolve geographical boundaries, in a manner of speaking, and time constraints.
In general, answering the questions concerning how media specifically the internet influences individuals and societies is significant because it enables us to understand the reasons behind their creation and progress. Learning those reasons allows us to realize the ways to improve the status quo because those reasons can serve as bases for us to identify what still needs to be done. The internet affects both individuals and societies. As a result, there is a need for a collective effort in protecting the benefits that we can derive from the use of the internet and in further developing the tools and mechanisms brought forth by the digital revolution. While people continue to derive benefits from the internet, it is equally important to take responsibility of our behaviors while using the internet so that the harms posed by the internet at the same time can be avoided. Identifying the effects of the internet on people and communities is a crucial step in overcoming the current threats and in furthering the advantages derived from the internet.
Bigos, Oren. “Jurisdiction over Cross-Border Wrongs on the Internet.” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 54.3 (2005): 585-620.
Fisher, William A., and Azy Barak. “Internet Pornography: A Social Psychological Perspective on Internet Sexuality.” The Journal of Sex Research 38.4 (2001): 312-23.
Gossett, Jennifer Lynn, and Sarah Byrne. “‘Click Here’: A Content Analysis of Internet Rape Sites.” Gender and Society 16.5 (2002): 689-709.
Warschauer, Mark. “Online Learning in Sociocultural Context.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 29.1 (1998): 68-88.
Wible, Brent. “A Site Where Hackers Are Welcome: Using Hack-in Contests to Shape Preferences and Deter Computer Crime.” The Yale Law Journal 112.6 (2003): 1577-623.
The European Union
The European Union is a political and economic organization founded in 1950 with Belgium, France, Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and Italy as the founding members. European Union was a group formed out of the European Coal and Steel Community, which was aimed at finding a solution to revive the region’s industry which was left staggering after the Second World War.
The European Union’s main objective is to promote international economic cooperation which can help in putting an end to the ongoing conflicts within the region. Nowadays, the European Union is composed of 27 member states which is constituted by half a million people and is considered as the world’s largest economy today. Through the European Union, a single market has been established wherein all member states are expected to operate under the standardized system of laws and policies set by the organization. This step was taken by the proponents of the European Union in order to guarantee freedom of movement in delivering goods, services and capital for the member states. In addition to this, the union also provided common policies that could encompass all the needs of the member states, including trade, agricultural and fisheries, and regional development policies.
In addition to these policies, member states of the European Union operate within a policy of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism, which strengthened the bond among the member states of the organization. The European Union also developed their own set of foreign policy, which became the organization’s foundation in representing the member countries in international organizations like the World Trade Organization, United Nations and G8 summits. As such, the developments and progress made within the European Union became the basis of the euro, rising as the world’s strongest currency, gaining an advantage against the dollar value.
Although the growth and development that the European Union has achieved, received fair enough amount of recognition from the international community, nevertheless there are still issues and limits that the European Union was not able to address. As such, there have been observations that the organization was not able to properly cater to the needs of individual countries. Some have viewed the way that the European Union has run the organization to be undemocratic, and has rather stripped off the rights of smaller member countries their freedom and right to create decisions that they believed will benefit their own countries and citizens.
The European Union went to exert extended efforts on trying to push in certain rules and policies to member states without giving proper orientation to their members and ensuring that their members have fully approved of the policies that the organization wishes to amend and implement. In addition to this issue, the European Union has difficulties in assessing and allowing new members into the organization. In contrast to the United States-sponsored policies of admission to organizations controlled by the United States which are more accommodating in accepting members, the European Union is rather reluctant and careful in accepting new members (“Charlemagne, Europe’s Marxist Dilemma”).
Although the constitution held by the European Union and the policies and practices that the Union has incorporated were enticing enough to attract European non-member countries to join the Union, the Union rather implemented intensive reforms that made it more difficult to admit new members. As such, the Union formulated new benchmarks and more intense scrutiny programs to assess a country’s qualifications in joining the organization. In addition to this, politics has always intervened with the decisions made by the Union. In the case of Greece, during the deliberation set to decide whether Greece is qualified for membership in the Union, no one among the countries repelled to veto the decision set for it even though only a few members have deemed to believe in the suitability of Greece to become a member of the Union (“Charlemagne, Europe’s Marxist Dilemma”).
Aside from these issues, the European Union was also strongly driven towards imposing their rules and policies to the members of the Union, regardless if some member countries feel that such laws and policies will serve people in their countries less adequately. The Irish rejection of the Lisbon Treaty in June 2008 is a distinct example. The Lisbon Treaty is a rough revised version of the rejected treaty in 2005. This treaty would have allowed the Union to elect a full-time president and would have created a new foreign policy chief to control the distribution of development aid. Although Ireland was not the only country to reject the treaty, nonetheless one vote was enough to reject the entire treaty.
Ideally though, the constitution of the European Union suggests that no treaty can be signed and approved unless all 27 member countries would vote for it. In essence, the constitution gives importance to the democratic ways of ratifying a treaty and spurs an idea of respect towards the decision made by the Irish people. However, with this event, the rest of the efforts made by the leaders of the European Union became directed towards encouraging the Irish government in voting for the second time and persuade them to vote for the treaty (“EU Summit: Rancour in Brussels”).
Thus, the scenarios following the Ireland’s decline led to European Union trying to reverse the effects of the Irish vote. Aside from Ireland, the Czech Republic also voted against the treaty. As such, apart from the Union’s efforts in persuading Ireland for a second vote, the Union also pressured the Czech Republic into reversing their vote. The Union used several tactics in order to coerce the Czech to agree in the treaty. Although the efforts made to persuade the Czech were rather less pronounced and more discrete, the leaders of the organization still believe that by the start of the Union’s next session, Czech will buckle up with their resistance. The European Union is banking on the fact that in the next session of the Union when the Czech holds on the Union’s presidency in January 2009, the Czech government will be forced to accept the treaty (“EU Summit: Rancour in Brussels”).
In the efforts to save the treaty from being totally scrapped, the leaders of the European Union and the active proponents of the Lisbon Treaty made counteractions in trying to persuade the rest of the members of the organization to recast their votes in favor of the treaty. And as such, the French President Nicolas Sarkovy used a rather more peaceful and rational way of attacking the issue and trying to get the Irish vote to sway in favor of the Lisbon Treaty in the second voting.
As such, Sarkovy used economic issues in trying to shed light to the issue. He used the grim economic outlook for the European Union in order to convince Ireland to rethink over its vote made. Sarkovy implied that the second vote being offered to Ireland and other countries which previously voted against the Lisbon Treaty was a second chance given to them in order to allow them to reflect on the possible consequences that might be caused by their negative vote and in turn, to redeem their votes and eventually vote in favor of the treaty.
However, some supporters of the Lisbon Treaty resorted into using philosophy and reason rather than the usual and conventional way of the European Union. Some have argued that the more democratic way of dealing in the Union was to pass the treaty even if Ireland has revoked the treaty (“Democracy in Europe”). Some believed that given the fact that the majority of the European Union favored the treaty, then the Union must be allowed to be passed because it is the more “democratic” way (“The future of the European Union Just Bury It”).
In addition to this retaliation from the supporters of the treaty, the European Union’s political leaders have reacted to the expression of some countries’ unwillingness to pass the treaty. As such, they have reached to the point of threatening members to leave the union if, on the second voting, they would continue rejecting the treaty. Furthermore, the European Union’s political leaders also declared the possibility that Europe’s economy will deteriorate if the treaty will not be passed.
In light of the disagreements that took place within the decision making process in the European Union, certain reactions were spurred that placed the viability and usefulness of the European Union as an organization when it comes to creating and implementing rules. The Irish rejection of the treaty caused the organization body to ponder on the effectiveness of the Union’s rule in amending treaties and laws. They considered the Irish rejection and the consequence of having to veto the entire Lisbon Treaty because of one negative vote as a setback to the European Union’s constitution.
Democracy cannot always go in harmony with efficiency (“The future of the European Union Just Bury It”). This was the statement released by supporters of the Lisbon Treaty after the disappointment that they met when the treaty was not amended. Arguments were centered on the fact that, in the constitution of the European Union which suggests that any amendment cannot be passed without the entire votes of the whole organization body, such rule is utterly inefficient and totally does not support the Union’s aim for carrying out policies which they believed would be of great benefit to the member states of the Union. And as such, supporters of the Lisbon Treaty believed that it should be amended whether or not the Irish body supports it. Because of the incidents that delayed the decision-making in the organization for the sake of upholding the democratic principle held by the European Union, suggestions have been made to amend this part of the Union’s constitution and make efficiency the first priority of the organization.
However, while there were member countries of the European Union who fully believed to the advocacies and principles held by the organization, there are also countries and critics who have thought otherwise. In line with the rejection of the Lisbon Treaty and the claim that the Union will not be able to function well without the treaty, critics and international academes believed that even without the treaty, the European Union has been and shall continue to function as efficiently as before. And as such, employing all means of coercion or exerting all of the organization’s member states towards convincing Ireland and other countries that opposed the treaty was utterly nonsense and a waste of time.
And in a more specific sense, the Lisbon Treaty was not at all a perfect pretext for the entire members of the European Union. Like any other treaties composed by the Union, the Lisbon Treaty was likewise a “messy compromise” for the members (“The future of the European Union Just Bury It”). And comparable to the entire constitution of the European Union, the Lisbon Treaty was also unsuccessful in meeting the objectives set by the Union seven years ago.
Although the Lisbon Treaty was not entirely bad with all its contents, nonetheless the provisions set within the treaty are not as useful and efficient as how it is perceived to serve the people within the organization. According to some critics, though the Lisbon treaty might be able to improve a few aspects of foreign policy making and bring in a fairer and more efficient policy of voting for the Union’s members, nonetheless the treaty can not provide full assurance that these changes can fully enhance the current conditions of the European Union’s members (“The future of the European Union Just Bury It”).
Apart from the loopholes found in the Lisbon Treaty, the political leaders of the European Union should be more aware of the differences that lie among the countries that the Union should be catering to. Take for example the case of Ireland. The Ireland did not agree with the basic proposals from the Lisbon Treaty because the Irish government felt threatened with the possible impact that it may occur for small countries like Ireland, or Czech Republic for instance.
The Irish government feared certain things and as such suffered from certain dilemmas that it felt might occur if the treaty has been ratified. The Irish government feared that their country might lose its autonomy and freedom to stand on its own and make decisions for the welfare and benefit of the larger Irish population. In addition to this, the Irish government felt that agreeing to the second voting as suggested by the European Union’s political leaders will imply that the Irish government has been “bullied” enough to succumb to the demands of the organization.
Although the European Union has made decisions in the past that led to the development and growth of the organization’s member states, it is still relevant that each country is being given the handful participation in amending or rejecting the policies that are being imposed to the members. Indeed, the intergovernmental cooperation instilled by the European Union towards its members is highly commendable. However, there are instances wherein the Union must give its members enough space to decide on their own and ponder on the things and decisions that will help emancipate individual countries’ growth.
With the recent developments in the European Union and the continuous and rigid opposition of the Irish government against the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, the political leaders stirring behind the European Union must understand that the Irish government has already stood their ground. And although Ireland is relatively a small country compared to the giants that are active in the European Union, the organization’s constitution provides that, as an intergovernmental institution, a full consensus must be attained before passing an amendment. And as such, there are no other ways of convincing Ireland to change decisions. Thus, the perfect time has come for the European Union to drop efforts in trying to reverse the decision that the body has finally come up with. Respecting the verdict of the Irish government would mean moving on to make new amendments that will better cater to the needs of the entire European Union.
“Charlemagne, Europe’s Marxist Dilemma.” 2008. Economist.com. 6 August 2008 <http://www.economist.com/research/articlesbysubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=682266&story_id=11089474>
“Democracy in Europe.” 2008. Economist.com. 6 August 2008 <http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11579372&CFID=15877157&CFTOKEN=76948108>
“EU Summit: Rancour in Brussels.” 2008. Economist.com. 6 August 2008 <http://www.economist.com/research/articlesbysubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=3833071&story_id=11605152>
“The future of the European Union Just Bury It.” 2008. Economist.com. 6 August 2008 <http://www.economist.com/research/articlesbysubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=3833071&story_id=11580732&CFID=15137392&CFTOKEN=92476277>