Category: Golden Papers
Practice new Research the history of management and how relevant these theories are in today’s environment and future management practice Over time many theories have been developed that contribute towards the management practice of today. It is important to understand management theories; they provide a stable focus for understanding what we experience, they provide criteria for what is relevant, also Theories enable us to communicate efficiently and move into more complex relationships with other people (Olum, 2004, p11)
The history of management includes great theories such as Fredrick Taylor’s Scientific Management, Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Works experiments and the human relations movement, Max Weber’s idealized bureaucracy, and Henri Fayol’s views on administration. (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) Fredrick Taylor’s (1856-1917) Scientific Management started the era of modern management.
Scientific management’s organizational influences can be seen in the development of the fields of industrial engineering, personnel, and quality control (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm). Taylor’s Theory still has relevance in how businesses operate today. A prime example is within the retail industry; the separate elements of a job are detailed, and how and when workers should go about carrying out daily tasks.
This type of job is fragmented into the smallest elements both in the scope of the task and the skill that the task involves (Stuart’s Blog, 19 Jan 2009) While Taylor had an impact on the establishment of the industrial engineering, quality control and personnel departments, the theorist Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Works experiments had a great impact on the human relations movement. The seemingly new concepts of “group dynamics”, “teamwork” and organizational “social systems” all stem from Mayo’s work in the mid-1920’s. (http://www. ernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm). Classical organisational theory This category of management theory is the work of Mark Weber’s bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayols’s administration theory. “Max Weber was attempting to do for sociology what Taylor had done for industrial operations. ” (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) He proposed different characteristics found in effective bureaucracies that would conduct decision making effectively, control resources, protect workers and achieve organisational goals.
With two exceptions, Henri Fayol’s theories of administration dovetail nicely into the bureaucratic superstructure described by Weber. While Weber laid out principles for an ideal bureaucratic organization Fayol’s work is more directed at the management layer. (Fayol’s five principle roles of management) Max Weber’s principles of an ideal bureaucracy still ring true today and many of the evils of today’s bureaucracies come from their deviating from those ideal principles. Fayol’s five principle roles of management are still actively practiced today. Plan, Organize, Command, Co-ordinate and Control are widely used by managers today. The concept of giving appropriate authority with responsibility is also widely commented on (if not well practiced) It is clear that modern organizations are strongly influenced by the theories of Taylor, Mayo, Weber and Fayol. Their precepts have become such a strong part of modern management that it is difficult to believe that these concepts were original and new at some point in history.
The modern idea that these concepts are “common sense” is strong tribute to these founders. Managers who apply theory to managing must usually blend principles with realities. Once managers know about theory, they will have the capacity to forestall future problems that may occur in the enterprise. (print out) involves (Stuart’s Blog, 19 Jan 2009) stuartgb. wordpress. com/2009/01/19/taylorism-is-it-relevant-today operations. ” (http://www. kernsanalysis. com/sjsu/ise250/history. htm) He proposed
It is a frustrating situation for her; she does not understand what is wrong with her being in love with an older man. She feels everybody is against her. She is sitting with Mrs. Morris who is a social worker. Mrs. Morris tries to make the girl tell about Mr. Harry, but the girl does not want to tell anything. She wants to be with Mr. Harry. “I want Mr. Harry. That’s all. ” (Page 57, in the bottom line. ) With him, she is comfortable. But the parents still cannot understand why she won’t talk. You follow the girl and her parents through the story.
The parents are trying to get some details from their daughter’s affair with Mr. Harry, because the parents does not like it. They know Mr. Harry’s – a man’s thoughts, and so they know he is just using their daughter and maybe sexually, but they cannot say for sure yet. But the girl will just not say anything. She is just heartbroken because of Mr. Harry has been imprisoned because of their affair. The girl has had a lot of problems and Mr. Harry has always helped her out. That makes her trusting Mr. Harry, because not even her parents use to help her out.
Mr. Harry has apparently touched the girl, and therefore they have to go to the courthouse. The girl thinks they have something special and therefore she did not mind the touching. The court doesn’t have enough evidence to jail Mr. Harry and therefore they release him. Afterwards the girl hears mom and dad talk about another girl who also has been “touched” by Mr. harry. She begins to scream and says “What other little girl”. The story has a 1st person narrator, which makes the story very personal. You see it through the eyes of the main character, the girl.
The story therefore gets very intimate and easy to identify with. You will never get the narrators age to know, and the author maybe let the age “fly”, so you can identify yourself with the narrator. The relationship between Mr. Harry and the narrator: Mr. Harry gives the girl attention, so she feels important. She feels at home at Harry’s, whereas her own home is just a house. He gives the narrator the feeling of being special. He helps her with the homework, and makes her stop smoking. The relationship between the parents and the narrator:
The parents and the girl are always fighting like: “Why haven’t you done that” and so on… Dad is almost never home, and when he is, he just says hello to his daughter and then gets on the phone. And he copes with the sorrow by yelling at his daughter that she is ruining her life. Before her mom found out about Mr. Harry, she used to command her daughter to do her homework, make her bed or set the table. After the incident, she cries a lot. So even though they have been a little rough sometimes, they care about their daughter. The girl felt lonely before she met Mr.
Harry. When she met him, she stopped smoking and started doing her homework. But when Mr. Harry got arrested she started smoking again, and felt back into her bad habits. And when she finds out Mr. Harry has done the same to another girl, as he had done to her, she gets very upset and jealous. The story “Me and Mr. Harry” could cover a lot of different themes. But here are some suggestions to some themes. One of the major themes could be parental failure. Because they have not been brought their daughter, so she can think on her own.
They have given their daughter a bad childhood and have not taught her, to take care of herself, and told her what is wrong and what is right to do in this world. A theme, which also could cover this story, could be love or jealousy. The girl thinks that Mr. Harry and her have a special relationship. She is in love with him, and when she hears about the other girl he apparently see too, she gets sad and jealous. A theme that also could be one of the major themes, but from a different angle, could be bad parenting, because the girl feels betrayed and left.
And this could provoke her to become a bad girl, who cannot take care of herself and think on her own. Something that could be important to mention is paedophilia, but this is not a theme, but more like a topic for the story. The girl is together with an older man, Mr. Harry. You get told that he have touched her several times, and even though you do not know the main characters age, you get to know that the school and the parents thinks that it is a problem. This suggests that we talk about a younger girl. Otherwise it could not be such a big problem.
Marcel Duchamp is recognized for being one of the most significant painters in the earliest 20th-century. He created the controversial and notorious masterpiece “Nude Descending a Staircase” in 1912, following his own beliefs about what art really means to him. The “Nude Descending a Staircase” is a complicated and difficult piece of art to understand, yet it is fascinating to me.
The artist chose to express his feelings through his paint, instead of following any art tendency. The artist uses mostly straight lines and you barley can see three or four circular lines in the whole paint. By doing this, it is captivating how he gives to the spectator the impression of CUBISM or in an abstract way. In addition, he created a sense of movement in the pain by using a combination of colors. If you analyze the paint in deep, you would be able to see that it is not a static paint.
He puts a lot of effort to making it dynamic. You feel that something is about to move when you look at the paint. Also, it is interesting to me how using your imagination you can capture the attention of the public making them enjoying your work. While evaluating the paint I could see the figure of a human body. As a matter of fact, I am not only able to see the figure of a person when I stare at the paint, but I am also able to appreciate what I consider a staircase.
The staircase is located in the lowest section of the paint. In my opinion, that could means something related to the power of humanity. In other words, how the humans can scale from the bottom to the top of a staircase or vice versa. Metaphorically, how people can ascend or descent a staircase could be related to be on a good situation (the top) or a bad situation (the bottom). Another idea that comes into my mind, it is that the body looks like a robot.
This could refer to what the painter imagined about the future. Because I do not understand exactly what the French artist was trying to communicate with his paint does not mean that there is not an awesome though in the message. I have no idea what Duchamp was thinking or feeling while he was painting this, but for sure that he was trying to transmit something. At this point I am not sure whether I am right or not in my interpretation, but I am enjoying the fact of trying to figure out the meaning of this paint.
To what extent is Lord of the flies a warning to its readers? William Golding fought in world war two as a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, when he returned from war he said that he was disgusted by “What one man can do to another”. Some people say that lord of the flies is a warning to its readers as shows them how the ‘innocent children’ changed into savage animals. It shows that even the most kind hearted of people have the ability to kill if they in a certain environment or put under certain kinds of pressure.
An example of this happening to a character in Lord of the flies is Jack Merridrew. When he was introduced he said, “I ought to be chief,” said Jack with simple arrogance, “Because I’m chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp. ” This showed that he cared about what people thought of him and he wanted people to recognise him as the leader but later on in the book, whilst he is using camouflage to help him hunt it says, “He looked in astonishment, no longer at himself but at an awesome stranger. This shows that when he hunted he didn’t want to be Jack Merridrew, he wanted to be someone different and by using the word “stranger” it shows that he doesn’t belong there but by adding the word “awesome” in front of it shows that Jack enjoyed being different from the others and he enjoyed not belonging. This is a sudden change, as in the beginning all he wanted was to be the leader of the boys.
Golding also uses lines like, “He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling” to show how Jack becomes more and more savage. The word “bloodthirsty” is very rarely used to describe children. This shows how the island has changed the “innocent children”. To add to this certain lines could be warnings. For example the comment made by Simon, “Maybe there is a beast, maybe it’s only us” shows that he was one of the only boys that realised how much the others were changing.
The other boys just went along with the majority whilst Simon, Ralph and Piggy stood up for what was right. This could be a warning for how easily people are led by what they see on the surface, which was also why Piggy was ridiculed. Also the island could also represent the Garden of Eden, as the garden was destroyed by human greed and the island was destroyed by the boys need for power.
The average national rate at which young people are placed in custody in Australia is 31 in every 100,000. The rate at which young people are placed in custody in NSW is 38 in every 100,000. This compares with 56 in Western Australia, 99 in the Northern Territory and 9 in Victoria where greater emphasis is placed on diversionary and preventative programs. Several broad observations and trends in Australian juvenile justice can be identified at the national level.
Over the last ten years, there has been a decrease in the number of cases heard in Australian children’s courts due to the increasing trend of diverting juveniles during the early stages of processing. Such diversionary measures typically include conferencing, drug and alcohol courts and programs, juvenile justice teams and special courts and programs for young people. The most common types of offences for which juveniles are adjudicated in children’s courts include burglary or theft, assault and dangerous or negligent driving.
Of all juvenile defendants who appeared in Australian children’s courts during the 2006-07 financial year, ninety-two percent received a criminal conviction and eighty-two percent pleaded guilty. Ninety-two percent of convicted juvenile offenders received non-custodial penalties such as fines, good behaviour bonds or community supervision orders. ‘How effective is the juvenile justice system? is a very difficult question to answer and will vary from person to person as some will be looking at the reduction in the crime rate will others will look at victim satisfaction.
In Australia the Juvenile system I believe is quite effective as each state have their own specific way in tackling young offenders , that are relevant specifically to that state. The AIC has monitored juveniles in detention in Australia since 1981. It has found that the number of juvenile detainees per 100,000 head of population dropped from 64. 9 in 1981 to 37 in 2008.
Richard Peck is a 78 years old American novelist. He was born April 10, 1934 in Decatur in the US-State Illinois. He attended elementary and high schools in Decatur. He writes stories for young adults and won several awards. Peck began to work as a high school teacher before he was transferred to a junior high school to teach English. After a while, he decided to cut his career short and write. However, these observations about junior high school students proved excellent material for his books ( – as we experienced at our story “I go along”).
He said, “Ironically, it was my students who taught me to be a writer, though I was hired to teach them. “ After college, he was drafted into the US Army as a chaplain’s Assistant and spent two years serving in Stuttgart, Germany. After his military service ended, he stared to teach junior high and high school English. He left teaching in 1971 to write his first novel, ”Don’t look and it won’t hurt”. He has written a book each year since then: totaling 41 books in 41 years. He currently lives in New York and divides his time between writing and traveling.
Here are some of his most popular novels listed: – “The ghost belonged to me” (1976) – “A long way from Chicago” (1998) – “A year down yonder” (2000) – “A season of gifts” (2009) Some of his stories were also adapted into movies, like “The ghost belonged to me” (1976), “Are you in the house alone? ” (1977) or “Gas food lodging” (1991). As I already mentioned at the beginning of his biography, Peck won several awards. In 1974 he was nominated for the “Edgar Allan Poe Award” for his novel
The Enlightenment is a lengthy period of history lasting from the end of the 17th century until the end of the 18th century. All across Europe, philosophers, intellectuals, and scientists were arguing for belief based on scientific discoveries and human reason. They were moving away from a life revolving around serving sovereign and church, to a belief that the individual had rights and could control their own life. The church and monarch had been found to be corrupt. This led to the questioning of churches, religion and monarchs that did not care for the welfare of their subjects.
The Enlightenment encouraged many political debates and theories of how people should be governed. These ideas circulated around Europe and across the Atlantic to the the Americas. The colonies were greatly impacted by these notions and revolted against Great Britain, causing the American Revolution. Before the Enlightenment, European thinkers began to reject the existing thoughts and practices entered around the church, and took a scientific approach. This shift in thinking was known as the scientific revolution.
This period gave rise to many new discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, medicine, and physics, many of which are still accepted today. A new approach to was developed known as the scientific method. This strategy involved forming a hypothesis and testing it through research and experiments. Ideas became more concrete because of this revolution; they were based on observations and logic. (Berlin 1957) Enlightenment thinkers wanted to apply reason and the scientific method to laws that shaped human actions.
The three-fifths compromise declared slaves partial and insufficient human beings. Ancient prejudice and tyranny was not destroyed with the American Revolution and ratification of the Constitution. It would be another ninety years before slavery was abolished in the United States and not until 1920 before women were given the right to vote. They, like Britain, were oppressing people for the purposes of land, resources, and power. The Enlightenment inspired America to win freedom and break away from the despotism of King George III, but the ideas did not immediately create a erfect republic; it began The United States of America’s long journey, which continues to this day.
As we learned under the retribution side to criminal punishment, there was a passage that related to biblical Old Testament scripture referring to and “eye for an eye” and “tooth for tooth” (Samaha, 2011, p. 2, Leviticus 24: 19-20). Penalties of this kind are unheard of and would never be considered as “just” punishment in the United States. In fact by definition, we would define punishment as a means of pain and suffering inflicted upon another person (Samaha, 2011, p. 22). Burden of proof simply means that the prosecution has the pressure applied to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty. According to the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, “no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. This simply means that by law, the prosecutor is not allowed to call defendants to the witness stand in criminal trials. Furthermore, it bars the prosecutor from statements that regard the defendant’s right to make a statement permitting the defendant to be able to ask the court to clear the jury on the grounds of guilt. (Samaha, 2012, p. 456). In proof beyond a reasonable doubt, defendants are not allowed to prove whether or not they are innocent. The right against self-incrimination grants the defendant the right to remain silent and it not count against them.
This would also be referred to as the reasonable doubt standard, which would require for the government to carry the full and complete burden of proving the defendant guilty. It would be up to the defendant in a criminal trial to prove what we would refer to as an affirmative defense. Another key term to use here would be entrapment. The standard of proof in an affirmative defense would be for the defense to introduce credible evidence proving the entrapment beyond a reasonable doubt; otherwise the burden shifts to the prosecutor’s burden to prove.
Indeterminate sentencing laws are statues that center on rehabilitation as a solution to suit the offender. Law makers have the authority to produce legislation that would award any such punishments that would tailor towards the offense (crime); whereas judges, parole officers, probation officials, and jurors would possess the authority to create the punishments that would suit the offender (criminal).
Our sense of identity can never be constant Identity and belonging are inter-related; they go like peas in a pod. The groups we choose to belong to and the ways we connect with others help to form our own identity. Together, these issues go to the heart of who we are and how we present ourselves to the world. One human quality that we all share, despite our individual identities, is the need to belong. It is a paradox that we long to be free, to be who we truly are and yet we yearn to belong to some kind of community.
There is no real obligation to belong to one group, you can belong to many, that is, an individual is not bound or obliged to belong to one group, they can belong to many which can create multiple identities for the individual, thus our sense of identity can never be constant. Belonging to a loving family, group of supportive friends and/or peers nurture us and help us to develop our own sense of self. However, the cost of belonging can be substantial. Families, for example, may have expectations of us that conflict with our own ambitions.
Groups may demand unquestioning obedience and conformity. It is painful to be an outsider but there is often a price to pay for belonging. It can be difficult to balance these conflicting impulses, to be both independently ourselves and to belong to a wider community. Identity is who we are and what our beliefs and values are. Our identity helps others to know more about us, helps them to perceive us as an individual rather than judging us on the basis of the groups that we belong to or the people we interact with.
In spite of this, Belonging to a group requires various forms of change in a person’s identity, which in turn leave the individual with multiple or inconsistent identities. We realize that if it had not been for the existence of the people who are around us, we probably would have not turned out the way we are. Friends and peers have a positive or negative influence.
Ridiculously low ticket prices are not their main marketing strategy for AirAsia but the airline regularly promotes its business in this way as it correlates directly with the airline’s mission of enabling everyone to fly. Being a low-cost airline, it needs to constantly remind customers of its benefit and regularly advertisements promoting their unbelievably low ticket price in order to generate word-of-mouth publicity. (AirAsia, 2005) People might wonder how can AirAsia sell tickets at those prices regulary and still make millions of ringgit revenue in the process.
The answer is simple because AirAsia is simply making lemonade out of lemons, right where the lemons are found (Sen Z. & Ng, J. , 2008). AirAsia realized that not every seat on every plane that takes off is occupied, so rather than to allow seats to go unoccupied, AirAsia is willing to offer them at incredibly low price. AirAsia does not care whether the seats are sold or not, but with this business tactic it eventually enable the company entrenching its position in the minds of customers as a true low-cost airline. Besides the innovation of AirAsia in providing cheaper ticket prices, Tony did not stop in expanding its business network.
Some analysts compliment that Tony was so creative in breaking the ice between countries by setting up joint ventures with regional partners and expanding routes first routes to Thailand and Indonesia, and later to Macau and China. (CNN Travel, 2004) For example, Thai AirAsia was established on 8 December 2003 as joint venture with Shin Corporation. In this joint venture, AirAsia hold 49 percent of Thai AirAsia with 1 percent being held by a Thai individual and the remaining 50% is held by Shin Corp, which is owned by the family of Thailand’s prime minister, Thaksin Shiawatra.
Shin Corp has financial strength, synergy in information technology and telecommunications, which is able to support AirAsia internet and mobile phone bookings. With this politically powerful backer, AirAsia can even grow faster than it expected because this helps AirAsia to open the Thailand market. (The Wall Street Journal, 2004) Besides aviation business, Tony also diversified his business so that the company sustainability will continue growing. For example, Tony started a hotel chain, Tune Hotels, based on the no-frills concept in 2007.
The first Tune Hotel was opened at the intersection of Jalan Sultan Ismail and Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. As the company continue grow, Tony is aiming to have 100 hotels in world by 2015. (BERNAMA, 2011) 2. 7 Management of risk In today’s environment of economic uncertainty, AirAsia is doing everything possible to reduce costs and conserve cash. Tony always defined these risks are actually his opportunity for AirAsia to survive if they are being well managed.
The strategies to encounter this risks are identifying all critical risk, quantifying their impact and developing and implementing integrated risk management solution that align people, process and technology to maximize company revenue. For example, analysts and investors really worry about the pressure of oil prices may affected airline business. But AirAsia still performs excellent in financial results compared to MAS which declared its losses. When people asked Tony how he battle for the high oil prices, he covering it quite comfortably because of the highly effective cost structure that his management team has developed.
He also did mention that his airline management team knows the price of every item for them to negotiate everything for example the cost of their senior management team, engineers, pilots and stewardesses. (Sen Z. & Ng, J. , 2008) Low cost is the only formula for AirAsia’s survival. Cost pressure is a real threat to its operations, and the price of oil is a more crucial issue to AirAsia compared with full-service airlines like MAS. People might think if AirAsia raises the ticket price, they will lost their customer else they will lose out on profits.
But Tony is confident that there are hundreds of ways to solve this problem rather than blaming the market fuels price. And AirAsia staffs will continue religiously working on it in order to keep its cost low. (Sen Z. & Ng, J. , 2008) 2. 8 Management of Change The launching of AirAisa X in 2007 was a great change in the company mission with the tagline “Now Everyone Can Fly Xtra Long”. Previously all AirAsia flights are short-haul airline within three-hour radius and all within Asia. To run this business he needs to have long-haul budget model flight and other landing facilities in Europe.
Therefore Tony take this opportunity to joint venture with Virgin Group and announced the formation of AirAsia X, as a new low-cost long-haul carrier that would provide fares from as low as RM9. 90 from Kuala Lumpur to the UK and a lot of cheaper fares were the average price would be 50 percent cheaper than market price. This huge change in Tony decision is due to the highly market demands for cheaper long-hauls fares. (Thestar Online, 2008) 2. 9 Management of Time Tony Fernandes is good in time management. In his company he is very emphasizes about the punctuality of his staffs.
Because he believes that if everyone is punctual to the work place then it will become a good culture in his company. Therefore it will eventually reduce the chances of flight delay due to the late arrival of the pilot for instance. Moreover Tony thinks everyone in his company play a part and there is no hierarchy between them. Without this position hierarchy different, he is actually creating a flat organization in his company where everyone is welcome to give their opinion in order to make the company grows.
As a result, it allows tops management to get new information in shorter time compared to hierarchy organization where the information needs to be filtered by each department before it can go to the top management. 2. 10 Ability to See the Big Picture Initially, Tony had invited MAS to sit down and discuss the possibility of collaboration for the sake of national interest, before MAS partnered with other regional airline to set up a joint-venture of low-cost carrier.