Category: Golden Papers


Homer Simpson Hero?


When we think of heroes, we think of firemen, police officers, and soldiers. We don’t think of our neighbors, dads, or friends. Being a hero does not mean we have to put ourselves in front of danger all the time, it is about having the right qualities and displaying those qualities. Being a hero boils down to a few main qualities. These qualities, which can be exhibited in anyway, are qualities that are quite important to being considered a hero. The main qualities are courage, selflessness, integrity, mental strength.

The episode, “Mr.Plow” is a part of a series called “The Simpsons”. In the Simpsons, the main character, Homer Simpson, does many stupid things, most of which put his family or himself in danger. By the end of each episode, Homer finds a way to fix any situation. In the episode “Mr. Plow”, Homer puts one of his friends in danger, but becomes a hero by displaying courage, selflessness, integrity, and mental strength to save his friend from death. The episode “Mr. Plow”, was a typical Simpsons episode. In the beginning, Homer was drinking at the bar, and his wife, Marge, asked him to come home because it was snowing outside.

So homer drives home drunk and ends up wrecking the car, into his other car at his own house. Once he lied to the Insurance Agent, he went out to buy a new vehicle. While he is at the auto show, he buys a snow plow and hopes that he can make some extra money by plowing people’s driveways and parking lots. This new scheme of his backfires very quickly when his friend Barney, starts his own plow business. Homer is frustrated by his friend betraying him, and tries to trick Barney by sending him up the mountain to plow a fake driveway.

While Barney is up there, he is trapped in an avalanche and is certain to die, unless someone can save him. Homer feels the need to save Barney, and braves the mountain to save his friend. The episode ends with the two friends embracing each other and the snow melting. A little more than halfway thru the episode, Homer made a horrible decision. “Homer gets an idea. He calls Barney with a disguised voice asking him to plow his driveway atop Widow’s Peak. “ (Mr. Plow) In his heart, Homer figured it would waste some time for Barney, so that he could make some extra money, by stealing his clients.

Hours later, Homer is watching the news while counting his money, and sees a “News flash: Barney was caught in an avalanche at Widow’s Peak. The shocking event was captured on film by a FOX camera crew filming “In Search of Bigfoot. ” The scene of Bigfoot is ruined when the guy in the ape suit forgets to take off his watch before shooting begins. Off to the side is Barney studying a map. He belches, and the sound induces the avalanche, burying him” (Mr. Plow). Almost instantly, Homer feels guilt and decides that he needs to save his friend, Barney. At this point, Homer becomes the hero.

By deciding to save Barney, Homer shows courage to try to define a dangerous mountain in the snow. Courage is not giving up, not giving in when the situation gets tough. The mountain that Homer was facing was not only dangerous in the snow, but there had been a recent avalanche. Homer chooses that saving his friend is more important. Halfway up the mountain while trying to save Barney, Homer almost falls down the dangerous cliff face when the rocks give way underneath. At that moment, most people would climb out of the truck, and call it quits. Homer knows what to do and calmly rights the truck and continues on his way to save his friend.

He shows courage to keep fighting and drives up the mountain to save his friend. Courage alone is not what only defines a hero, selflessness does as well. Acting selfless is an incredibly hard thing to do as a human. We are programmed to always think about ourselves first and how outcomes can help us. Acting selfless means we put our priorities aside and help our fellow man, making sure that their needs are satisfied. Homer had no incentive to save Barney. If he saved Barney, he was not going to be rich or famous. He would still be working the same dead end job at the Nuclear power plant.

By having no incentive to save his friend, and still doing it shows that it was the most selfless act that Homer could have done. By saving his friend, he put not only his life, but the well-being of his family in danger. If he would have died, his family had very little to live on, and Marge would have had to get a job and raise three children on her own. By acting selfless, he showed how stupid he was, but how courageous he was, and how much of a hero he could be. Courage and selflessness is not the only two traits needed to be a hero, there is also integrity. Integrity is arguably the most important trait for a hero to possess.

It means doing the right action without anyone watching, or without recognition. Homer Simpson did not have to save Barney. That was a choice he made. After that choice was made, he made a number of other choices that showed he had integrity. He could have gone to the Police and asked for a search party to follow him up there, so when he saved Barney, he would have an audience. He could have called the news and had a chopper or crewing filming the daring rescue. He could have also drug his family along, like he normally does, to show them that he can do something good.

He did nothing; all he did was travel up the mountain and save his friend Barney. He showed an incredible amount of integrity. With these three traits, integrity, selflessness and courage, Homer is almost the complete hero. At this point, all Homer is lacking is mental strength. Mental strength is incredibly hard to possess as a person, mainly because it only shows when death is peering from around the corner. Mental strength is all about how you perceive a situation to be. If you are stranded on an island, you may work hard to build a shelter and form a rescue signal; that is mental strength.

Many people will not face death more than once or twice in their lifetime. Homer faced death a couple times on that mountain but fought through it all to save his friend. He had a chance to turn back at the parking lot with the sign in front of him that the mountain is 13000 feet tall. Homer started his truck right up and starting drive. His first dealing with death was “to cross a dangerous chasm, Homer braves a dilapidated rope bridge” (Mr. Plow). He could have very easily fallen off the bridge and plummeted to his death. He fought on, and drove across.

Next, he faced the side of the mountain as he almost fell to his death. “Making its way along a precarious ledge, the truck loses its traction and teeters ever-so-precariously over the edge. Homer carefully turns the radio dial towards the upper end of the dial, and this proves enough to tip the truck back to safety” (Mr. Plow). He could have turned back multiple times, or given up, but he stayed strong and focused on the task at hand and moved on. By displaying incredibly mental strength, Homer has displayed all four traits to be a hero. Any sane person would have call the authorities and let them save Barney.

As a good friend, Homer made the decision that he needed to save Barney. Sometimes, the right thing is not the easiest, and that is something that heroes have to deal with from time to time. The four traits: courage, selflessness, integrity, and mental strength are important because they allow a hero to overcome any challenge he may face. If Homer would have possessed those traits, he would not have been able to save his friend, Barney. Throughout the final scene, he continually displays these traits and shows how much of a hero he is when he rescues his friend Barney from certain death.

One Page Business Plan


One page business plan: „Build your shoe“ „Build your shoe“ is an online company where the customers can create their own shoes just as they want to. The target group is younger as well as older women who can afford a little bit more money as the shoes are exclusive. This goes along with the economic trend that even teenagers having more money and disposable income and therefore spending more money on exclusive and designer clothes. So the most important advantage of this business idea is that the trend to individualism of women is satisfied by the opportunity to customize their own shoes.

They can choose their own material oft he shoe (the leather) as well as the color and the heel as of course their size. This customization makes the shoe so unique. Also an advantage is that if women once found out their individual favorite shoe material and size they can buy these shoes in every color out of a range of 35 different colors so that they can buy their perfect shoe to the every outfit. They select every item on the homepage and the shoes will be delivered to them afterwards. This process will take about 10 to 15 working days. An alternative business concept would be to open stores.

At first one store and then spread more stores if the company grows. Another alternative that reduces complexity would be that the material of the shoes (leather type) is already determined so that it can only be chosen between the color, size and the heel. Key resources contain physical resources such as a computer and an office. When the company “Build your shoe” is established there are no other employees or any other human resources necessary because me and the other three team members will be the owners of the company and will therefore manage the company themselves and take care for the business relations.

The entrepreneur? s key activities consist of the initial programming and updating of the website, advertising, managing customer complaints and relations to key partners such as the manufacturer and suppliers. Maybe after a few years there will be some employees as the company starts to grow. We decided to outsource the production to a separated manufacturer who has the materials and machines needed for manufacturing. Therefore the shoe is supposed to cost 150 $ as 50 $ is the material and labor costs and 30 $ will be paid to the manufacturer as a margin.

During the first months the company will not sell any shoes and has to invest a lot in advertising to spread the idea. So the calculated amount of money to invest will be 10. 000 $. As we are four owners everyone has to invest only 2. 500 $. This amount will flow back in about 1,5 years so that the breakeven point will be reached really early. The information resources that are needed are the internet because by using it the company can benchmark the competition and market trends.

Also the U. S. government offers a wealth of information to small businesses from laws and regulations that affect them, to statistics about their industries, to industry analysis and information which „build your shoe“ can use because it is available online. Revenues are generated from the margin the customers pay for their shoes as the production is sourced out as well as from commission payments per successful matching of demand and supply of the customized shoes.

Video Games Affecting Children


Violent video games affecting children Video games around the world have become immensely popular, a multi-billion dollar industry. An industry which revolves around the wants and desires of children and teens. An industry with a creation of unique entertainment like no other. An industry that continues to grow rapidly. Hours and hours are spent each day by youths playing these games, but are they really good for them? Are they educational? Games which educate a child’s mind exist but they wouldn’t be as popular as your top seller shooting game.

Nowhere even close. Here I am today to tell, to inform, and to enlighten parents on the dangers of letting your child play these violent games. As a child, I found that my parents seemed to push away all sorts of violent games, no matter how badly I wanted them. It didn’t seem to make sense at first but as I grew older, I saw the younger generation getting addicted to games like these and without doubt, showed a different behaviour and attitude.

In this modern age, a child or teen is quite likely to have a gaming console or access to the internet or a friend who does. With these, they can play or access games which may contain violent content. As youths play these games in excess, they tend to act out what they may see or hear in front of their friends and family. It gives them a tendency to act aggressive and violent. They learn new things, like bad language. They may use foul language against their friends and possibly repeat violent stunts at home.

These games are full of foul language, bloody scenes and criminal behaviour. It gives them a prospect for confrontation with peers, with siblings, with parents and even with their teachers. They engage in fights which in turn could cause possible decline in their studies. They could even brush aside their school work to sit in front of a television because it’s like an addiction to them. The question is: should parents be encouraged to disallow their son or daughter to be entertained by these types of video games?

The answer is up to you, as parents. It is up to you to observe whether you see a change in attitude among your kids and if in a negative way, then you should take action in order for your child to behave in an appropriate manner among people. Games like these are everywhere, so your child will grow up in an environment where they will play them. Although, it is always recommended to look at the age rating of the game before you buy it, to see whether or not your son or daughter fits into the category of restriction. You can even et limits on how long they should be allowed to play games, just so they don’t get too involved with the theme of the game.

It’s absolutely paramount for a child to grow up in a positive environment. In my opinion, games that involve the likes of drugs, bloodshed, criminal behaviour, foul language and violence should not be banned, but put into higher restriction everywhere. There should be more age limitations and games that involve hostility at a lower level. So parents, do you know what games your children are playing? Have a look.

Challenges for Social Entrepreneurs


The field of social entrepreneurship is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, has become common on university campuses. One of the most important reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship is the inherently appealing stories about entrepreneurs and how they confront challenges. Finding the funding, building strong infrastructure, and creating innovative ideas are the three challenges social entrepreneurs face.

Financing the growth of operations to achieve major objectives is undoubtedly the biggest challenge facing social entrepreneurs. Not all of the social entrepreneurs have sufficient funding to fulfill their innovative ideas. One way to solve this problem is crowdfunding. Crowdfunding is the collective cooperation by people who network and pool their money together. Entrepreneurs looking to finance socially responsible start-ups can use crowd-funding to find capital from patient investors who want long-term results and not just a quick fix.

The Stockbox team used this web-enabled method to build Stockbox Grocery, (Woodward, 2011). Prior to this, people were not familiar with their plans and they had insufficient money to practice their ideas. To solve this, they engaged in crowdfunding. Crowdfunding offered a platform for fundraisers to access their community which enabled the Stockbox team to attract investors interested in their brilliant ideas and build the store in Seattle Washington, (Woodward, 2011).

Fundraising is an important part of social entrepreneur. In order to get an ideal amount of money donated, Keith Curtis, founder of the Curtis Group, recommends social entrepreneurs to take 70% of their time to meet potential donors, (Heather Joslyn, 2010) Difficulty in building supportive infrastructure of the organization is another great challenge for social entrepreneurs. A dependable work team and practical plan are necessary to achieve the specific long-term goals of the social entrepreneur.

Outstanding management leads to strategic methods of identifying the scale of the plan and global operation and lays the foundation for success, (PSI fellows, 2010). As Dees (2007, p. 33) notes, a successful social entrepreneur is supported with a conducive environment. Wide-ranging dissemination of the goals and plans is indispensable and makes people familiar with what the company is and how they can benefit from the organization. In addition, government support can significantly help social entrepreneurs with particular policies.

Under the support of the government, social entrepreneurs can courageously practice their innovative ideas, manage the risk of their plans, and attract individual citizen investors’ trust. In a word, social entrepreneurs need to consider about a great number of aspects and create their own infrastructure of the organization. Innovative ideas are indispensable in order to be distinguished above other similar companies. Charity foundation and individual investors will consider financing people with brilliant and unproven ideas.

It is an arduous task for social entrepreneurs to break the norm and reform traditional structures. Social entrepreneurs, based on previous experience, may reorganize the structure of a specific field or even combine several fields together to create an absolutely new idea field. Muhammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen Bank, is best known for developing the innovative idea of a microfinance bank which even won him the Nobel Peace Prize, (The Economist, 2010).

Drayton, who founded the Environmental Protection Agency, made ranging from the introduction of emissions trading to the use of economics-defined incentives to remove the advantage of delaying compliance, (Bornstein,2004). Ashoka is another example who enlarged the range of social entrepreneur. Childline, his company, combines businesses, kids from the street, groups of citizens, and the government to create a widespread network with a great reputation and strong influence. Drayton, Muhammad Yunus and Ashoka did not follow the prevailing structure of their fields.

Instead, they brought out marvelous ideas to achieve success. All in all, social entrepreneur continues to grow in popularity. With sufficient finance, the support of infrastructure and support for their creative ideas, social entrepreneurs can put their ideas into practice and overcome the obstructs. In order to achiece this, social entrepreneurs need to make tremendously great effort to a sophisticated plan.

Sigmund Freud


According to the theory described by Sigmund Freud, there is a relation between basic instinct of human beings and aggression of an individual which is known as the death instinct. This theory is also based on the theory of evolution of nature which showed that the strong side will survive. For instance, two hunters which are starved for 3 days are hunting for a deer will try to harm each other so that they can have the deer for the whole family. Hence, if this situation happens gradually, hunters will eventually become more and more aggressive to obtain the greater chance of survival.

The theory which is known as frustration-aggression theory had proposed the idea that aggression is developed due to the presence of frustration. Frustration is defined as the obstruction of goals of an individual. However, the severity of aggression is based on the different level and capricious of the frustration. For instance, an individual needed an amount of money to pay for an emergency surgery of his or her children due to an accident. If he or she knows that there are still families or friends who are able to help him then the aggression will be not so severe.

However, if there is no any helps around then he or she might act very aggressively. The aversive emotional arousal hypothesis suggests that the appearance of the aggression is due to other bad events happen around the individual such as furious or sickness. For example, an individual who is having a chronic disease or facing the economical problem will act aggressively to their family. The theory is the social learning theory which demonstrated that individual will act aggressively to reach their goals.

For example, when a individual watch a soccer match where a footballer act aggressively to injured a player and win the ball, he also will try to act like the footballer in order to win a soccer match. In the society, conflict normally happens in between the same group or population of human being due to the close relations and communications. For instances, the probability of abuse is equal in all the different races. Gender is an important factors in aggression which a men usually the side which is aggressive compared to the woman which is normally the victim.

This is due to norm where men is physically and mentally more powerful than woman. However the role of genders is not applied in all situations, for instances, in a family, daughter and son is equally abused by parents. Attribution of attack is crucial in precipitating an aggressive act of an individual which is under attacked. When a person is aware of a person who might act aggressively towards himself then the probability of this person to act aggressively is increased in order to protect themselves or revenge.

The understanding of the ability to retaliate may cause or prevent a conflict to happens. For instances, when a person know that the opponents which he or she is dealing have the ability to fight back then the person behavior might not be aggressive. A displayed aggression is a person will turned their aggressive to other person when he or she know that he cannot act aggressively to the initial cause of the aggression. Situation also plays an important role in the occurrence of aggression. A potential reward is one of the situations which will lead to the occurrence of aggression.

Factors such as social status and material will cause the enhancement of the aggression in an individual to achieve their purposes. For instances, a robber will act extremely aggressive to the guard of a bank who try to stop him from robbing the bank. Another situation is the present of models or examples which lead to the appearance of idea of aggression in an individual. The presence of models will show the way the act aggressively, affect the attitude to certain idea and results of the aggressive act.

For instances, a person will copy his friends behavior which using aggressive behavior to gain certain benefits from others. Society norm also influence in the behavior of a person. For instances, revenge to anyone who have criticize us no matter for good or bad purposes is normal in this society. Besides that, a person in stress also will show more aggressive act. For example, in our society those who create problem such as abuse, murder or robbing normally are those who face economical stress. An aggressive cue is any substances or thinking which will facilitate the development of an aggressive act.

For instances, when there is a knife in hand, a person will have more will to rob a person if compare to those without any weapons. There is numerous solution for the development of aggressive act. Since we know that aggression is due to the presence of frustration, we must first try to reduce or prevent the appearance of frustrations. For instances, when there is a problem in a family or among friends, criticism or blaming each other will only increase the frustration. However, the true solution for the problem is try to communicate and figured out a solution which is the best in all aspects.

Another solution is we should punish person who had done the aggressive act. However, the punishment should fulfill the following requirement as logic, legal and punishment must be applied after the aggression. For example, a robber should be jailed for years so that when he is released, he will refused to rob again and people will realize that the punishment of robbery is such heavy and this will prevent them to do the same act. Besides, the presence of models that is success without using an aggressive act also a very effective solution.

For example, in soccer team that a person support, the favorite player is very discipline and are not aggressive when playing, then the person also will be act like his favorite player in the soccer match he plays. Another solution is by catharsis which is converting the aggression act in the other way instead of the original causes. For instances, a person who are angry after scolded by the boss cannot act aggressively to the boss to prevent loss of his job will turn his aggressive act towards a sport like playing a tennis match or a football match.

Sterling Crisis


After World War II, the British economy had again lost huge amounts of absolute wealth. Its economy was driven entirely for the needs of war and took some time to be reorganised for peaceful production. Anticipating the end of the conflict, the United States had negotiated throughout the war to liberalise post-war trade and the international flow of capital in order to break into markets, which had previously been closed to it, including the British Empire’s Pound Sterling bloc. Immediately after the war had ended, the U. S. halted free Lend-Lease.

In 1947, the Great Britain was still suffering from various post-war economic problems. An unusually cold winter in the beginning of the year aggravated the economy. Britain was under high war-debt. Supplies to home consumer were cut severely as the dollar reserves of Britain became exhausted. As the demand of the European countries for American goods increased, the prices of US raw materials rose and British import program turned out to be more expensive than originally expected. Lack of coal and a cut in timber imports led to a housing problem.

According to the Anglo-American Loan Agreement, Britain on July 15th 1947 declared the convertibility of the Pound Sterling into any currency. However, Britain had to revoke the convertibility on August 20 as massive demands of Sterling-holders for an exchange of their Sterling holdings into US Dollars rapidly drained the British Dollar reserves. Prime minister Attlee was pursuing a policy of building a welfare state, which would add to the strain on the British economy. In August 1947 when convertibility was due to begin, the economy was not as strong as it needed to be.

When the Labour Government enacted convertibility, there was a run on Sterling, meaning that Sterling was being traded in for dollars, seen as the new, more powerful and stable currency in the world. This damaged the British economy and within weeks it was stopped. Sterling crisis was one of the reasons that Britain remained reluctant to the European economic integration wished by the U. S. government. It is no wonder that Britain, which had to solve these various economic problems, welcomed the Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery

Program, ERP) which was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to US companies could export their surplus products and to prevent the spread of Soviet communism. Us government was emphasizing that Britain takes the lead in European integration, but Britain as the leader of Commonwealth and America’s important all, believed that they should cooperate with the US in managing a one world system would include the Continental countries. By 1949, the British pound was over valued and had to be devalued.

Ap World History Spread of Buddhism


As Buddhism spread throughout China during the first century CE, people had a variety of responses, both positive and negative. Many Chinese accepted Buddhism and its beliefs, yet some criticized the religion and how foreign it was, having been originated in India. Documents 1, 2, 3, and 5 are supportive of Buddhism and documents 4 and 6 discourage it. Documents 1, 2, 3, and 5 all support Buddhism’s beliefs and encourage the practice of this religion. Document 1 is excerpted from Buddha’s first sermon in which he speaks of Buddhism’s most basic beliefs, the four noble truths.

The four noble truths describe how to achieve enlightenment and salvation. This appealed to the Chinese lower class, specifically after the collapse of the Han. In document 2, Zhi Dun speaks of more religious practices of Buddhism, such as serving the Buddha and obeying the commandments. He also promotes the faith by speaking about its promise of enlightenment after death. Zhi Dun, who happens to be a scholar and confidant of Chinese aristocrats and officials, is bias in favor of Buddhism.

This document was written around 350 CE, a time of distress and invasion in China. The Han Empire had fallen, thus putting China in a time of vulnerability. During this time in China, political leaders, such as Zhi Dun, had to win over all the members of society to restore the Han system of government, even the lower class. Zhi Dun, being a member of the upper class, promoted Buddhism in hope to gain the support of the lower class. Document 3 is trying to explain Buddhism in this question-and-answer formatted document.

This anonymous Chinese scholar is also bias in favor of Buddhism because in 500 CE, when this document was written, Buddhism was still gaining political favor in China, as the empire was still in turmoil. Document 5 explains that Buddhism, as well as Daoism and Confucianism, lead to a harmonious society and the Buddha, along with Confucius and Lao zi, brought forward their teaching with excellent timing, in tune with the needs of the government. Although document 5 defends three belief systems, it is still supportive of Buddhism.

Documents 4 and 6 discourage the practice of Buddhism in China. Document 4 is written by Han Yu who focuses on the fact that Buddhism originated in India and has nothing to do with Chinese history and culture. He also states in the document that it is not proper to worship relics, and that they belong “at a distance. ” This document was written after the Tang Empire restored China, making Han Yu biased against Buddhism. Now that political stability has been restored, political officials and people of the upper class do not have to gain the favor of the middle and lower classes.

These officials went back to promoting Confucianism and discouraging Buddhism. They had only favored Buddhism to gain supporters when China’s government had broken down. They favored Confucianism because the social hierarchy gives them more power and elitism. Document 6 is written by Emperor Wu of the Tang dynasty. Obviously, the Emperor would take the same opinion as Han Yu when it comes to favoring Confucianism after the Tang Empire’s restoration of China. Emperor Wu claims that Buddhism’s monastic life ruins “people’s strength” because it forces monks to abandon the emperor, his family, and his work.

Basically, Emperor Wu claims that monks are not playing their part in society, because they focus on practicing Buddhism, which promotes social equality and enlightenment. All in all, in the proof of these documents, there was a more positive reaction than negative to Buddhism’s arrival in China. To able to better analyze the situation, a document showing the amount of converts in this time period and a document from the point of view of a lower class member or a woman would help.

It Challenges


If requested by your mentor, use an assignment cover sheet as the first page of the word processor file. The assignment header should include the Learner’s last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number (DoeJXXX0000-1) justified to the left and the page number justified to the right. Keep a Photocopy or Electronic Copy of Your Assignments: You may need to re-submit assignments if your mentor has indicated that you may or must do so.

Academic Integrity: All work submitted in each course must be the Learner’s own. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by the faculty mentor. The known submission of another person’s work represented as that of the Learner’s without properly citing the source of the work will be considered plagiarism and will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course, and may result in academic dismissal.

I also believe that it would be a good idea if this information was taught in schools, beginning with elementary schools. I have made some comments on your paper, which was somewhat confusing. I ran your paper through Turnitin and it shows 59% similarity, which is high. It is apparent that some of the information you used was not cited correctly, especially when you refer to yourself. Please review the Northcentral Academic Integrity policy and let me know if you have questions. This is a warning that I will continue to turn all of your papers into Turnitin for originality checks.

Municipal Solid Waste Management in China


No country has ever experienced as large or as fast an increase in solid waste quantities that China is now facing. In 2004 China surpassed the United States as the world’s largest waste generator, and by 2030 China’s annual solid waste quantities will increase by another 150% – growing from about 190,000,000 tons in 2004 to over 480,000,000 tons in 2030(Delvoie 2005).

This growing waste stream has significant impact for the society, environment and economic development. The Quantity and Composition of MSW in China The definition of municipal solid waste (MSW) should include all waste generated since the municipality may be required to assume responsibility if there is no longer sufficient impetus to remove the material from the waste stream. This report defines MSW as all waste originating in urban areas from residential, industrial (non-hazardous), commercial and institutional sectors.

Most Chinese municipal solid waste generation data is presented in three categories: municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste. ‘Municipal waste’ usually includes residential, institutional, commercial, street cleaning, and non-process waste from industries. In some cases, construction and demolition waste is also included and can dramatically skew the generation rate, especially in times of high economic growth and related construction activity. ‘Industrial waste’ is usually limited to ‘process waste’ such as process by-products like scrap metal, slag, and mine tailings.

Hazardous waste’ usually refers to industrial hazardous waste generated as a by-product of the manufacturing process, medical waste, small-scale generation of hazardous waste from households, institutions and commercial establishments, and occasionally small amounts of radioactive waste, e. g. smoke detectors and medical process waste. The categorization of wastes in China is not always consistent or comprehensive from city to city and adversely affects the utility of the database.

And most available information in China is based on ‘waste collected’ data rather than ‘waste generated’data. However, waste generated data is more useful since it includes recyclable secondary materials, and encourages more full-cost accounting of the overall MSW system and program financing. Data presented in this report are waste generated estimates.

Landfill and incineration have been the most common methods to treat solid waste and now it is still popular in many places around the world( http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Landfill), especially in China. China now is facing a great problem of increasing quantity of solid waste and landfill is one of the most common treatments considered by the government now. According to a World Bank report (2005), China’s cities will need to develop an additional 1400 landfills over the next 20 years. It will be a big issue for both China and the world.

As the trend is unavoidable, careful consideration and management is extremely needed in China now. In the past ten years, China has made great improvement in waste management, especially in landfill management. Most larger cities are aggressively moving towards sanitary landfilling as their main disposal option. (WB, 2005) But still, for a lot of cities in China, the standard of sanitary landfilling is not achieved completely. The management of landfill becomes the most serious problem now and in the future. We are facing a lot of serious problems in the process of landfilling in China now.

The key issue among them is lack of overall consideration, management and operation. There are a lot of problems in different aspects. From the aspects of construction, the overall operating conditions need urgent attentions and especially the slops in the landfill are mostly inadequate. And also the phenomenon of over design exists a lot. For some cases, after the over-design, the constructions of subsequent phases are premature. According to the report of World Bank (2005), some synthetic liners are exposed to the elements and huge additional volumes of leachate are generated.

These problems are serious in the past and need better management and much more consideration and construction. From the aspects of the leachate, there are also a lot of troubles in this part. The collection of the leachate is inadequate and the treatment is not well organized. It is possible for them to contaminate the underground water or lead to great damage to the soil around. The contaminated soil become the “brownfields” and it will cause a lot of serious sequences. It will impact the public health and environmental quality,especially the land values will decrease a lot.

There are likely at least 5000 of these sites now in Chinese cities. The cost to clean them up is significant higher than the cost to have disposed of the waste properly in the first place. (WB 2005) From the aspects of gas, very little landfill has gas collection at present. If we can gather these gases, we can decrease the greenhouse gas emission a lot. According to the estimation, the proportion of potential saving in greenhouse gas emission can be as high as 70%. Considering the global warming and the carbon trade, it means a lot in the future. And also we can generate electricity from it, or at least, we can deal it with gas flaring.

In addition, the reuse of the landfill is needed in the near future. A lot of landfill sites are dumped without any attention nowadays. Golf sites and other use form of the landfill should be considered carefully in the future to save the space and also to improve the management after the landfill finishes. Although there are a lot of shortcomings in China right now, still in some site, these disadvantages are being quickly remedied and government has done some significant improvements, such as the waste treatment workshop in Guangzhou. They have improved their conditions of landfill very quickly according to the international standard.

Composting is the process of producing compost through aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter. After composting, gas can be generated and they can be used to generate electricity or to be lighted up. China has a great demand for composting as the size of brownfields is increasing all the time. Due to the increasing city population and the soil become more important to the citizens. The remains of the composting are good medicine to improve the quality of the soil and increase the yield of the soil. Also the composting can reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gases.

Although it is more expansive than landfill, the product through the process is more useful and it takes smaller space. It is particular important for a country like China who has such a big population and relatively small distance between cities. But still, there are some serious situation existing in the composting. First is also about the management of composting. Composting is more expansive than landfill. To increase the proportion of composting, more invest is needed. There is a economic issue between it and the development. Second, careful classification is required before the composting begins.

Otherwise, the remains of composting may have high level of heavy metal or other chemicals, which will lead a bad result. Higher technology and more careful attention need to be taken by the operators, and it is also a big issue to think about. Third, the standard of composing is not very good set up in China. More detailed national operational standard and regulation is needed before building more composting sites. To sum up, there is still a long way to go before China can catch up with the developed country and reach the international standard, but we are trying to do, and significant improvement has taken place already.

King of Shadows


Nathan and Shakespeare’s bond grew stronger and stronger every chapter as they know more about each other and their love for acting and the stage. Nathan and Shakespeare connected with each other as Nathan is always trying to do his best at acting, surprising Shakespeare with the things he could do, such as his acrobatics skills. When Nathan met Shakespeare for the first time, all he wanted to do is be closer to him. ‘William Shakespeare. It was as if he’d said, ‘Say hello to God. ’ I stared down at the stage, speechless.

I suppose we were ten feet or so above him, for a moment I couldn’t move – and then more than anything I wanted to be closer to him. ’ This could show that even before they met, Nathan knew that they would be close. Inseparable. ‘Don’t go, please don’t go. It wasn’t because he was William Shakespeare. I just knew that I liked being with him, more than with anyone I knew. ’ When Nathan was in floods of tears, Shakespeare understood that Nathan wasn’t crying because of Roper, but because of something deeper, clicking straight to the reason. There is more here than persecution by a nasty boy.

What ails thee, Nat? What is it, this terrible buried sorrow? Dost miss thy parents? Where are they? ’ Nathan was astonished by how he could go directly to his problem that he didn’t talk about for so long. This scene bonded them tighter as Nathan soon found out that Shakespeare has gone through something like this before, by losing his son, Hamnet three years ago. The fact that Hamnet was the same age as Nathan meant that Shakespeare wanted to look after Nathan, just like he would have for Hamnet.

To this, Nathan felt as if Shakespeare was a fatherly figure to him, later inviting Nathan to stay at with him, telling him that it wasn’t his fault that Nathan’s father took his own life, telling him that love did it, the fact that Nathan’s father loved his mother so much, he couldn’t bear to live without her, which later helped him think about his father without panicking or crying, which he had never done since he passed away. Shakespeare also called Nathan his ‘aerial sprite’. ‘Our Nat is not a romantic beauty. Th’art a sprite, an aerial sprite, born in the air.

One day I shall write thee an airier Robin Goodfellow – unless thou leave me, or grow old. ’ Shakespeare hinted to Nathan to never leave him, the fact that Nathan is his sprite, his Puck, and the bond is really strong and the fact that they both need each other, which warms Nathan’s heart when he hears Shakespeare voice. ‘He had a wonderful voice, clear and warm and sort of mid-brown. I was as happy that moment as I think I’ll ever be: standing there listening to him, knowing I was part – and a useful part, just now – of his company, safe in the small family work of theatre.

I wanted it to never end. Shakespeare even wrote down a sonnet he had wrote for a woman, but used it to represent the Nathan and his father, about how love does not vanish with death, but stays eternal and that Nathan shouldn’t think he wasn’t good enough. ‘Let me not to the marriage of true minds, Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove O, no! It is an ever fixed mark That looks on tempest and is never shaken; It is the star to every wand’ring bark Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken. Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks

Within his bending sickle’s compass come; Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out to, even to the edge of doom. If this be error, and upon me prov’d, I never writ, nor no man ever lov’d. ’ On the day of the play, Nathan knew that his time with Shakespeare is drawing to an end, at the fact that he would be going back to St. Paul’s boys. ‘Will Shakespeare came from behind me, pulled up a stool and sat down to watch Burbage paint.

Gladness at seeing him sent sudden warmth into my throat and my chest; a wonderful feeling, but oddly like pain. This shows that Nathan feels safe around Shakespeare and leaving Shakespeare to go to St Paul’s Boys felt like going out to a dangerous world. Shakespeare and Nathan shared a same passion for acting on stage, as it felt like a different world which you can change who you are, and a world which you can ignore reality. ‘This was his world, this was what he did and who he was, and I knew exactly how he was feeling, because the same was true for me. ’ Even when Shakespeare was acting in ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’, Nathan felt as if he was the leader, the one with authority, and the King of Fairyland and of the whole world.

This made Nathan, in the character of Puck, his loyal servant. In the play, Nathan and Shakespeare were Puck and Oberon, together. ‘There we were, the two of us, at the heart of this happy gathering of three thousand people, at the heart of this fantastical play: together in the centre of the stage, Will Shakespeare and me. ’ Nathan knew the perfections Shakespeare wants in his plays, and Nathan, even-though he did a lot of thribbling when he was playing Boy in the last minute; Shakespeare was amazed at how he learnt his lines. ‘Th’art a true actor, sprite. ’ When it was Nathan’s last day before he returns to St.

Paul’s, William Shakespeare told him that he will miss him, and Nathan, longing for him to take him with Shakespeare. ‘Thou hast a gift that will not break with thy voice. I give thee my promise of a place with the Chamberlain’s Men. ’ Nathan and Shakespeare then shared an emotional goodbye. ‘The strangeness. My aerial sprite. I shall not forget thee, Nat Field. ’ ‘He held me close for a moment, and kissed the top of my head. ’ In chapter 16, Nathan does not know that his dream of his father tossing him in the air was actually him going back to his own time, 4 hundred years in the future.

Little did he know that that night was the last time he would ever see Shakespeare again. After the time wrap back, Nathan Field panicked at the fact that he couldn’t find the paper with the poem written on it. He felt the fact that he had lost everything, Shakespeare and the only thing that Shakespeare gave to him. ‘I was numb; if I started to think, I would panic. I can’t have left him; I can’t really have left him’. This made Nathan wonder, was it a dream? Nathan felt as if he lost something very special to him. He felt like ‘I was like a planet that has lost its sun. This showed that Nathan felt lost, without its light, he was made to search his path in darkness. That little add of anger was enough to trigger an emotional storm when Arby shouted:

Nathan was filled with sadness and the memories of Shakespeare and him filled his mind. ‘Sure I knew Will Shakespeare was dead, he’d been dead for nearly four hundred years but two days ago, for me, he had been alive, warm and alive and hugging me, promising me a place as an actor in his company. I loved him and I missed him, and I should never see him again, never, never, never, never, never. Jealously occurred when Nathan found out that it weren’t a dream and the fact that the other Nathan Field left Shakespeare, given the chance to see Shakespeare again but only joining the King’s Men after Shakespeare’s death. The connection between Shakespeare and Nathan was never broken as Nathan found out that Shakespeare never forgotten his ‘aerial sprite’ as he wrote a play for him, ‘The Tempest’. Where Nathan was represented as ‘Ariel’, a spirit, where at the end of the play, Prospero lets Ariel go free. ‘I shall miss thee, but still thou shalt have freedom. ’